Postprandial apoE Isoform and Conformational Changes Associated with VLDL Lipolysis Products Modulate Monocyte Inflammation
ABSTRACT Postprandial hyperlipemia, characterized by increased circulating very low-density lipoproteins (VLDL) and circulating lipopolysaccharide (LPS), has been proposed as a mechanism of vascular injury. Our goal was to examine the interactions between postprandial lipoproteins, LPS, and apoE3 and apoE4 on monocyte activation.
We showed that apoE3 complexed to phospholipid vesicles attenuates LPS-induced THP-1 monocyte cytokine expression, while apoE4 increases expression. ELISA revealed that apoE3 binds to LPS with higher affinity than apoE4. Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy of site-directed spin labels placed on specific amino acids of apoE3 showed that LPS interferes with conformational changes normally associated with lipid binding. Specifically, compared to apoE4, apoE bearing the E3-like R112→Ser mutation displays increased self association when exposed to LPS, consistent with a stronger apoE3-LPS interaction. Additionally, lipolysis of fasting VLDL from normal human donors attenuated LPS-induced TNFα secretion from monocytes to a greater extent than postprandial VLDL, an effect partially reversed by blocking apoE. This effect was reproduced using fasting VLDL lipolysis products from e3/e3 donors, but not from e4/e4 subjects, suggesting that apoE3 on fasting VLDL prevents LPS-induced inflammation more readily than apoE4.
Postprandial apoE isoform and conformational changes associated with VLDL dramatically modulate vascular inflammation.
Full-textDOI: · Available from: Jens O Lagerstedt, Jun 14, 2015
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ABSTRACT: IMPORTANCE Because deposition of cerebral β-amyloid (Aβ) seems to be a key initiating event in Alzheimer disease (AD), factors associated with increased deposition are of great interest. Whether elevated serum cholesterol levels act as such a factor is unknown. OBJECTIVE To investigate the association between serum cholesterol levels and cerebral Aβ during life early in the AD process. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS A multisite, university medical center-based, cross-sectional analysis of potential associations between contemporaneously assayed total serum cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and cerebral Aβ, measured with carbon C11-labeled Pittsburgh Compound B (PIB) positron emission tomography. Seventy-four persons (mean age, 78 years) were recruited via direct outreach in stroke clinics and community senior facilities following a protocol designed to obtain a cohort enriched for cerebrovascular disease and elevated vascular risk. Three patients had mild dementia. All others were clinically normal (n = 33) or had mild cognitive impairment (n = 38). RESULTS Cerebral Aβ was quantified using a Global PIB Index, which averages PIB retention in cortical areas prone to amyloidosis. Statistical models that controlled for age and the apolipoprotein E ε4 allele revealed independent associations among the levels of LDL-C, HDL-C, and PIB index. Higher LDL-C and lower HDL-C levels were both associated with a higher PIB index. No association was found between the total cholesterol level and PIB index. No association was found between statin use and PIB index, and controlling for cholesterol treatment in the statistical models did not alter the basic findings. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE Elevated cerebral Aβ level was associated with cholesterol fractions in a pattern analogous to that found in coronary artery disease. This finding, in living humans, is consistent with prior autopsy reports, epidemiologic findings, and animal and in vitro work, suggesting an important role for cholesterol in Aβ processing. Because cholesterol levels are modifiable, understanding their link to Aβ deposition could potentially and eventually have an effect on retarding the pathologic cascade of AD. These findings suggest that understanding the mechanisms through which serum lipids modulate Aβ could offer new approaches to slowing Aβ deposition and thus to reducing the incidence of AD.JAMA Neurology 12/2013; DOI:10.1001/jamaneurol.2013.5390 · 7.01 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: One of the primary neuropathological hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease is the presence of extracellular amyloid plaques resulting from the aggregation of amyloid beta (Aβ) peptides. The intrinsic disorder of the Aβ peptide drives self-association and progressive re-ordering of the conformation in solution, and this dynamic distribution of Aβ complicates biophysical studies. This property poses a challenge for understanding the interaction of Aβ with apolipoprotein E (apoE). ApoE plays a pivotal role in the aggregation and clearance of Aβ peptides in the brain, and the ε4 allele of APOE is the most significant known genetic modulator of Alzheimer's risk. Understanding the interaction between apoE and Aβ will provide insight into the mechanism by which different apoE isoforms determine Alzheimer's disease risk. Here we applied alternating laser excitation fluorescence cross correlation spectroscopy to observe the single molecule interaction of Aβ with apoE in the hydrated state. The diffusion time of freely diffusing Aβ in the absence of apoE shows significant self-aggregation, whereas in the presence of apoE, binding of the protein results in a more stable complex. These results show that apoE slows down the oligomerization of Aβ in solution, and provide direct insight into the process by which apoE influences the deposition and clearance of Aβ peptides in the brain. Furthermore, by developing an approach to remove signals arising from very large Aβ aggregates, we show that real-time single particle observations provide access to information regarding the fraction of apoE bound and the stoichiometry of apoE and Aβ in the complex.Journal of Biological Chemistry 02/2013; DOI:10.1074/jbc.M112.411900 · 4.60 Impact Factor