The Influence of Genetics on Cystic Fibrosis Phenotypes
ABSTRACT Technological advances in genetics have made feasible and affordable large studies to identify genetic variants that cause or modify a trait. Genetic studies have been carried out to assess variants in candidate genes, as well as polymorphisms throughout the genome, for their associations with heritable clinical outcomes of cystic fibrosis (CF), such as lung disease, meconium ileus, and CF-related diabetes. The candidate gene approach has identified some predicted relationships, while genome-wide surveys have identified several genes that would not have been obvious disease-modifying candidates, such as a methionine sulfoxide transferase gene that influences intestinal obstruction, or a region on chromosome 11 proximate to genes encoding a transcription factor and an apoptosis controller that associates with lung function. These unforeseen associations thus provide novel insight into disease pathophysiology, as well as suggesting new therapeutic strategies for CF.
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ABSTRACT: To determine the frequency of six mutations (F508del, G542X, G551D, R553X, R1162X, and N1303K) in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) diagnosed, at a referral center, on the basis of abnormal results in two determinations of sweat sodium and chloride concentrations. This was a cross-sectional study involving 70 patients with CF. The mean age of the patients was 12.38 ± 9.00 years, 51.43% were female, and 94.29% were White. Mutation screening was performed with polymerase chain reaction (for F508del), followed by enzymatic digestion (for other mutations). Clinical analysis was performed on the basis of gender, age, ethnicity, pulmonary/gastrointestinal symptoms, and Shwachman-Kulczycki (SK) score. All of the patients showed pulmonary symptoms, and 8 had no gastrointestinal symptoms. On the basis of the SK scores, CF was determined to be mild, moderate, and severe in 22 (42.3%), 17 (32.7%), and 13 (25.0%) of the patients, respectively. There was no association between F508del mutation and disease severity by SK score. Of the 140 alleles analyzed, F508del mutation was identified in 70 (50%). Other mutations (G542X, G551D, R553X, R1162X, and N1303K) were identified in 12 (7.93%) of the alleles studied. In F508del homozygous patients with severe disease, the OR was 0.124 (95% CI: 0.005-0.826). In 50% of the alleles studied, the molecular diagnosis of CF was confirmed by identifying a single mutation (F508del). If we consider the analysis of the six most common mutations in the Brazilian population (including F508del), the molecular diagnosis was confirmed in 58.57% of the alleles studied.Jornal brasileiro de pneumologia: publicacao oficial da Sociedade Brasileira de Pneumologia e Tisilogia 39(5):555-61. DOI:10.1590/S1806-37132013000500005 · 1.27 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Cystic fibrosis (CF) is caused by mutations in the CF transmembrane conductance regulator gene (CFTR). Disease severity in CF varies greatly, and sibling studies strongly indicate that genes other than CFTR modify disease outcome. Syntaxin 1A (STX1A) has been reported as a negative regulator of CFTR and other ion channels. We hypothesized that STX1A variants act as a CF modifier by influencing the remaining function of mutated CFTR. We identified STX1A variants by genomic resequencing patients from the Bernese CF Patient Data Registry and applied linear mixed model analysis to establish genotype-phenotype correlations, revealing STX1A rs4363087 (c.467-38A>G) to significantly influence lung function. The same STX1A risk allele was recognized in the European CF Twin and Sibling Study (P=0.0027), demonstrating that the genotype-phenotype association of STX1A to CF disease severity is robust enough to allow replication in two independent CF populations. rs4363087 is in linkage disequilibrium to the exonic variant rs2228607 (c.204C>T). Considering that neither rs4363087 nor rs2228607 changes the amino-acid sequence of STX1A, we investigated their effects on mRNA level. We show that rs2228607 reinforces aberrant splicing of STX1A mRNA, leading to nonsense-mediated mRNA decay. In conclusion, we demonstrate the clinical relevance of STX1A variants in CF, and evidence the functional relevance of STX1A variant rs2228607 at molecular level. Our findings show that genes interacting with CFTR can modify CF disease progression.European Journal of Human Genetics advance online publication, 10 April 2013; doi:10.1038/ejhg.2013.57.European journal of human genetics: EJHG 04/2013; DOI:10.1038/ejhg.2013.57 · 4.23 Impact Factor
Article: The Cystic Fibrosis Intestine[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The clinical manifestations of cystic fibrosis (CF) result from dysfunction of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator protein (CFTR). The majority of people with CF have a limited life span as a consequence of CFTR dysfunction in the respiratory tract. However, CFTR dysfunction in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract occurs earlier in ontogeny and is present in all patients, regardless of genotype. The same pathophysiologic triad of obstruction, infection, and inflammation that causes disease in the airways also causes disease in the intestines. This article describes the effects of CFTR dysfunction on the intestinal tissues and the intraluminal environment. Mouse models of CF have greatly advanced our understanding of the GI manifestations of CF, which can be directly applied to understanding CF disease in humans.Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Medicine 06/2013; 3(9). DOI:10.1101/cshperspect.a009753 · 7.56 Impact Factor