Upregulation of lipogenesis is a hallmark of cancer and blocking the lipogenic pathway is known to cause tumor cell death by apoptosis. However, the exact role of lipogenesis in tumor initiation is as yet poorly understood. We examined the expression profile of key lipogenic genes in clinical samples of ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) of breast cancer and found that these genes were significantly upregulated in DCIS. We also isolated cancer stem-like cells (CSCs) from DCIS.com cell line using cell surface markers (CS24(-)CD44(+)ESA(+)) and found that this cell population has significantly higher tumor-initiating ability to generate DCIS compared with the non-stem-like population. Furthermore, the CSCs showed significantly higher level of expression of all lipogenic genes than the counterpart population from non-tumorigenic breast cancer cell line, MCF10A. Importantly, ectopic expression of SREBP1, the master regulator of lipogenic genes, in MCF10A significantly enhanced lipogenesis in stem-like cells and promoted cell growth as well as mammosphere formation. Moreover, SREBP1 expression significantly increased the ability of cell survival of CSCs from MCF10AT, another cell line that is capable of generating DCIS, in mouse and in cell culture. These results indicate that upregulation of lipogenesis is a pre-requisite for DCIS formation by endowing the ability of cell survival. We have also shown that resveratrol was capable of blocking the lipogenic gene expression in CSCs and significantly suppressed their ability to generate DCIS in animals, which provides us with a strong rationale to use this agent for chemoprevention against DCIS.Oncogene advance online publication, 3 December 2012; doi:10.1038/onc.2012.519.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: When fighting cancer, knowledge on metabolism has always been important. Today, it matters more than ever. The restricted cataloging of cancer genomes is quite unlikely to achieve the task of curing cancer, unless it is integrated into metabolic networks that respond to and influence the constantly evolving cancer stem cell (CSC) cellular states. Once the genomic era of carcinogenesis had pushed the 1920s Otto Warburg's metabolic cancer hypothesis into obscurity for decades, the most recent studies begin to support a new developing paradigm, in which the molecular logic behind the conversion of non-CSCs into CSCs can be better understood in terms of the "metabolic facilitators" and "metabolic impediments" that operate as proximate openings and roadblocks, respectively, for the transcriptional events and signal transduction programs that ultimately orchestrate the intrinsic and/or microenvironmental paths to CSC cellular states. Here we propose that a profound understanding of how human carcinomas install a proper "Warburg effect version 2.0" allowing them to "run" the CSCs' "software" programs should guide a new era of metabolo-genomic-personalized cancer medicine. By viewing metabolic reprogramming of CSCs as an essential characteristic that allows dynamic, multidimensional and evolving cancer populations to compete successfully for their expansion on the organism, we now argue that CSCs bioenergetics might be another cancer hallmark. A definitive understanding of metabolic reprogramming in CSCs may complement or to some extent replace, the 30-y-old paradigm of targeting oncogenes to treat human carcinomas, because it can be possible to metabolically create non-permissive or "hostile" metabotypes to prevent the occurrence of CSC cellular states with tumor- and metastasis-initiating capacity.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Thyroid hormone 3,5,3'-triiodo-L-thyronine (T3) is known to affect cell metabolism through both the genomic and non-genomic actions. Recently, we demonstrated in HepG2 cells that T3 controls the expression of SREBP-1, a transcription factor involved in the regulation of lipogenic genes. This occurs by activation of a Cap-independent translation mechanism of its mRNA. Such a process is dependent on non-genomic activation of both MAPK/ERK and PI3K/Akt pathways. The physiological role of 3,5-diiodo-L-thyronine (T2), previously considered only as a T3 catabolite, is of growing interest. Evidence have been reported that T2 rapidly affects some metabolic pathways through non-genomic mechanisms. Here, we show that T2, unlike T3, determines the block of proteolytic cleavage of SREBP-1 in HepG2 cells, without affecting its expression at the transcriptional or translational level. Consequently, Fatty Acid Synthase expression is reduced. T2 effects depend on the concurrent activation of MAPKs ERK and p38, of Akt and PKC-δ pathways. Upon the activation of these signals, apoptosis of HepG2 cells seems to occur, starting at 12h of T2 treatment. PKC-δ appears to act as a switch between p38 activation and Akt suppression, suggesting that this PKC may function as a controller in the balance of pro-apoptotic (p38) and anti-apoptotic (Akt) signals in HepG2 cells.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Energy metabolism plasticity enables stemness programs during the reprogramming of somatic cells to an induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) state. This relationship may introduce a new era in the understanding of Warburg's theory on the metabolic origin of cancer at the level of cancer stem cells (CSCs). Here, we used Yamanaka's stem cell technology in an attempt to create stable CSC research lines in which to dissect the transcriptional control of mTOR-the master switch of cellular catabolism and anabolism-in CSC-like states. The rare colonies with iPSC-like morphology, obtained following the viral transduction of the Oct4, Sox2, Klf4, and c-Myc (OSKM) stemness factors into MCF-7 luminal-like breast cancer cells (MCF-7/Rep), demonstrated an intermediate state between cancer cells and bona fide iPSCs. MCF-7/Rep cells notably overexpressed SOX2 and stage-specific embryonic antigen (SSEA)-4 proteins; however, other stemness-related markers (OCT4, NANOG, SSEA-1, TRA-1-60, and TRA-1-81) were found at low to moderate levels. The transcriptional analyses of OSKM factors confirmed the strong but unique reactivation of the endogenous Sox2 stemness gene accompanied by the silencing of the exogenous Sox2 transgene in MCF-7/Rep cells. Some but not all MCF-7/Rep cells acquired strong alkaline phosphatase (AP) activity compared with MCF-7 parental cells. SOX2-overexpressing MCF-7/Rep cells contained drastically higher percentages of CD44 (+) and ALDEFLUOR-stained ALDH (bright) cells than MCF-7 parental cells. The overlap between differentially expressed mTOR signaling-related genes in 3 different SOX2-overexpressing CSC-like cell lines revealed a notable downregulation of 3 genes, PRKAA1 (which codes for the catalytic α 1 subunit of AMPK), DDIT4/REDD1 (a stress response gene that operates as a negative regulator of mTOR), and DEPTOR (a naturally occurring endogenous inhibitor of mTOR activity). The insulin-receptor gene (INSR) was differentially upregulated in MCF-7/Rep cells. Consistent with the downregulation of AMPK expression, immunoblotting procedures confirmed upregulation of p70S6K and increased phosphorylation of mTOR in Sox2-overexpressing CSC-like cell populations. Using an in vitro model of the de novo generation of CSC-like states through the nuclear reprogramming of an established breast cancer cell line, we reveal that the transcriptional suppression of mTOR repressors is an intrinsic process occurring during the acquisition of CSC-like properties by differentiated populations of luminal-like breast cancer cells. This approach may provide a new path for obtaining information about preventing the appearance of CSCs through the modulation of the AMPK/mTOR pathway.
Data provided are for informational purposes only. Although carefully collected, accuracy cannot be guaranteed. The impact factor represents a rough estimation of the journal's impact factor and does not reflect the actual current impact factor. Publisher conditions are provided by RoMEO. Differing provisions from the publisher's actual policy or licence agreement may be applicable.