Menin and GIP are inversely regulated by food intake and diet via PI3/AKT signaling in the proximal duodenum

Center for Diabetes and Endocrine Research (CeDER), Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, College of Medicine, University of Toledo Medical Center, University of Toledo Health Science Campus, Toledo, OH, USA.
Nutrition & Diabetes (Impact Factor: 2.65). 12/2012; 2(12):e55. DOI: 10.1038/nutd.2012.30
Source: PubMed


Background and Aims:
Ingestion of food stimulates the secretion of incretin peptides glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) and glucagon-like peptide 1 to ensure the proper absorption and storage of nutrients. Menin is the 67 kDa protein product of the MEN1 gene recently reported to have a role in metabolism. In this study, we will determine the regulation of menin in the proximal duodenum by food intake and diet in correlation with GIP levels in the proximal duodenum of mice after an 18 h fast followed by 4 and 7 h refeeding and 3 months of high-fat diet.

A dual luciferase assay was used to determine GIP promoter activity and ELISA was used to measure the levels of GIP after inhibition of menin through small interfering RNA (siRNA) and exposure to MAPK and AKT inhibitors. Colocalization of menin and GIP were determined by immunofluorescence.

Menin and GIP expression are regulated by fasting, refeeding and diet in the proximal duodenum. Overexpression of menin in STC-1 cells significantly inhibited GIP mRNA and promoter activity, whereas menin siRNA upregulated GIP levels. Inhibition of GIP expression by the PI3/AKT inhibitor, LY294002, was abrogated in STC-1 cells with reduced menin levels, whereas the MAPK inhibitor, UO126, inhibited the expression of GIP independent of menin. Exposure of STC-1 cells to GIP reduced menin expression in a dose-dependent manner via PI3K-AKT signaling.

Feeding and diet regulates the expression of menin, which inversely correlates with GIP levels in the proximal duodenum. In vitro assays indicate that menin is a negative regulator of GIP via inhibition of PI3K-AKT signaling. We show menin colocalizing with GIP in K cells of the proximal gut and hypothesize that downregulation of menin may serve as a mechanism by which GIP is regulated in response to food intake and diet.

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Available from: Leah Wuescher, Apr 17, 2014
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