Menin and GIP are inversely regulated by food intake and diet via PI3/AKT signaling in the proximal duodenum
ABSTRACT Background and Aims:Ingestion of food stimulates the secretion of incretin peptides glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) and glucagon-like peptide 1 to ensure the proper absorption and storage of nutrients. Menin is the 67 kDa protein product of the MEN1 gene recently reported to have a role in metabolism. In this study, we will determine the regulation of menin in the proximal duodenum by food intake and diet in correlation with GIP levels in the proximal duodenum of mice after an 18 h fast followed by 4 and 7 h refeeding and 3 months of high-fat diet.Methods:A dual luciferase assay was used to determine GIP promoter activity and ELISA was used to measure the levels of GIP after inhibition of menin through small interfering RNA (siRNA) and exposure to MAPK and AKT inhibitors. Colocalization of menin and GIP were determined by immunofluorescence.Results:Menin and GIP expression are regulated by fasting, refeeding and diet in the proximal duodenum. Overexpression of menin in STC-1 cells significantly inhibited GIP mRNA and promoter activity, whereas menin siRNA upregulated GIP levels. Inhibition of GIP expression by the PI3/AKT inhibitor, LY294002, was abrogated in STC-1 cells with reduced menin levels, whereas the MAPK inhibitor, UO126, inhibited the expression of GIP independent of menin. Exposure of STC-1 cells to GIP reduced menin expression in a dose-dependent manner via PI3K-AKT signaling.Conclusion:Feeding and diet regulates the expression of menin, which inversely correlates with GIP levels in the proximal duodenum. In vitro assays indicate that menin is a negative regulator of GIP via inhibition of PI3K-AKT signaling. We show menin colocalizing with GIP in K cells of the proximal gut and hypothesize that downregulation of menin may serve as a mechanism by which GIP is regulated in response to food intake and diet.
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ABSTRACT: Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways are activated by several stimuli and transduce the signal inside cells, generating diverse responses including cell proliferation, differentiation, migration and apoptosis. Each MAPK cascade comprises a series of molecules, and regulation takes place at different levels. They communicate with each other and with additional pathways, creating a signaling network that is important for cell fate determination. In this review, we focus on ERK, JNK, p38 and ERK5, the major MAPKs, and their interactions with PI3K-Akt, TGFβ/Smad and Wnt/β-catenin pathways. More importantly, we describe how MAPKs regulate cell proliferation and differentiation in the rapidly renewing epithelia that lines the gastrointestinal tract and, finally, we highlight the recent findings on nutritional aspects that affect MAPK transduction cascades.International Journal of Molecular Sciences 05/2013; 14(5):10143-61. DOI:10.3390/ijms140510143 · 2.34 Impact Factor