Efficacy of a Clinical Decision-Support System in an HIV Practice A Randomized Trial
ABSTRACT Data to support improved patient outcomes from clinical decision-support systems (CDSSs) are lacking in HIV care.
To test the efficacy of a CDSS in improving HIV outcomes in an outpatient clinic.
Randomized, controlled trial. (ClinicalTrials.gov registration number: NCT00678600)
Massachusetts General Hospital HIV Clinic.
HIV care providers and their patients.
Computer alerts were generated for virologic failure (HIV RNA level >400 copies/mL after a previous HIV RNA level ≤400 copies/mL), evidence of suboptimal follow-up, and 11 abnormal laboratory test results. Providers received interactive computer alerts, facilitating appointment rescheduling and repeated laboratory testing, for half of their patients and static alerts for the other half.
The primary end point was change in CD4 cell count. Other end points included time to clinical event, 6-month suboptimal follow-up, and severe laboratory toxicity.
Thirty-three HIV care providers followed 1011 patients with HIV. In the intervention group, the mean increase in CD4 cell count was greater (0.0053 vs. 0.0032 × 109 cells/L per month; difference, 0.0021 × 109 cells/L per month [95% CI, 0.0001 to 0.004]; P = 0.040) and the rate of 6-month suboptimal follow-up was lower (20.6 vs. 30.1 events per 100 patient-years; P = 0.022) than those in the control group. Median time to next scheduled appointment was shorter in the intervention group than in the control group after a suboptimal follow-up alert (1.71 vs. 3.48 months; P < 0.001) and after a toxicity alert (2.79 vs. >6 months; P = 0.072). More than 90% of providers supported adopting the CDSS as part of standard care.
This was a 1-year informatics study conducted at a single hospital subspecialty clinic.
A CDSS using interactive provider alerts improved CD4 cell counts and clinic follow-up for patients with HIV. Wider implementation of such systems can provide important clinical benefits.
National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases.
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ABSTRACT: With the adoption of combination antiretroviral therapy (ART), most HIV-infected individuals in care are on five or more medications and at risk of harm from polypharmacy, a risk that likely increases with number of medications, age, and physiologic frailty. Established harms of polypharmacy include decreased medication adherence and increased serious adverse drug events, including organ system injury, hospitalization, geriatric syndromes (falls, fractures, and cognitive decline) and mortality. The literature on polypharmacy among those with HIV infection is limited, and the literature on polypharmacy among non-HIV patients requires adaptation to the special issues facing those on chronic ART. First, those aging with HIV infection often initiate ART in their 3rd or 4th decade of life and are expected to remain on ART for the rest of their lives. Second, those with HIV may be at higher risk for age-associated comorbid disease, further increasing their risk of polypharmacy. Third, those with HIV may have an enhanced susceptibility to harm from polypharmacy due to decreased organ system reserve, chronic inflammation, and ongoing immune dysfunction. Finally, because ART is life-extending, nonadherence to ART is particularly concerning. After reviewing the relevant literature, we propose an adapted framework with which to address polypharmacy among those on lifelong ART and suggest areas for future work.Drugs & Aging 06/2013; 30(8). DOI:10.1007/s40266-013-0093-9 · 2.50 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: We systematically reviewed randomized controlled trials (RCTs) assessing the effectiveness of computerized decision support systems (CDSSs) featuring rule- or algorithm-based software integrated with electronic health records (EHRs) and evidence-based knowledge. We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and Cochrane Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects. Information on system design, capabilities, acquisition, implementation context, and effects on mortality, morbidity, and economic outcomes were extracted. Twenty-eight RCTs were included. CDSS use did not affect mortality (16 trials, 37395 patients; 2282 deaths; risk ratio [RR] = 0.96; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.85, 1.08; I(2) = 41%). A statistically significant effect was evident in the prevention of morbidity, any disease (9 RCTs; 13868 patients; RR = 0.82; 95% CI = 0.68, 0.99; I(2) = 64%), but selective outcome reporting or publication bias cannot be excluded. We observed differences for costs and health service utilization, although these were often small in magnitude. Across clinical settings, new generation CDSSs integrated with EHRs do not affect mortality and might moderately improve morbidity outcomes. (Am J Public Health. Published online ahead of print October 16, 2014: e1-e11. doi:10.2105/AJPH.2014.302164).American Journal of Public Health 10/2014; 104(12):e1-e11. DOI:10.2105/AJPH.2014.302164 · 4.23 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Background The adoption of electronic medical record systems in resource-limited settings can help clinicians monitor patients' adherence to HIV antiretroviral therapy (ART) and identify patients at risk of future ART failure, allowing resources to be targeted to those most at risk. Methods Among adult patients enrolled on ART from 2005–2013 at two large, public-sector hospitals in Haiti, ART failure was assessed after 6–12 months on treatment, based on the World Health Organization's immunologic and clinical criteria. We identified models for predicting ART failure based on ART adherence measures and other patient characteristics. We assessed performance of candidate models using area under the receiver operating curve, and validated results using a randomly-split data sample. The selected prediction model was used to generate a risk score, and its ability to differentiate ART failure risk over a 42-month follow-up period was tested using stratified Kaplan Meier survival curves. Results Among 923 patients with CD4 results available during the period 6–12 months after ART initiation, 196 (21.2%) met ART failure criteria. The pharmacy-based proportion of days covered (PDC) measure performed best among five possible ART adherence measures at predicting ART failure. Average PDC during the first 6 months on ART was 79.0% among cases of ART failure and 88.6% among cases of non-failure (p<0.01). When additional information including sex, baseline CD4, and duration of enrollment in HIV care prior to ART initiation were added to PDC, the risk score differentiated between those who did and did not meet failure criteria over 42 months following ART initiation. Conclusions Pharmacy data are most useful for new ART adherence alerts within iSanté. Such alerts offer potential to help clinicians identify patients at high risk of ART failure so that they can be targeted with adherence support interventions, before ART failure occurs.PLoS ONE 11/2014; 9(11):e112261. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0112261 · 3.53 Impact Factor