Data to support improved patient outcomes from clinical decision-support systems (CDSSs) are lacking in HIV care.
To test the efficacy of a CDSS in improving HIV outcomes in an outpatient clinic.
Randomized, controlled trial. (ClinicalTrials.gov registration number: NCT00678600)
Massachusetts General Hospital HIV Clinic.
HIV care providers and their patients.
Computer alerts were generated for virologic failure (HIV RNA level >400 copies/mL after a previous HIV RNA level ≤400 copies/mL), evidence of suboptimal follow-up, and 11 abnormal laboratory test results. Providers received interactive computer alerts, facilitating appointment rescheduling and repeated laboratory testing, for half of their patients and static alerts for the other half.
The primary end point was change in CD4 cell count. Other end points included time to clinical event, 6-month suboptimal follow-up, and severe laboratory toxicity.
Thirty-three HIV care providers followed 1011 patients with HIV. In the intervention group, the mean increase in CD4 cell count was greater (0.0053 vs. 0.0032 × 109 cells/L per month; difference, 0.0021 × 109 cells/L per month [95% CI, 0.0001 to 0.004]; P = 0.040) and the rate of 6-month suboptimal follow-up was lower (20.6 vs. 30.1 events per 100 patient-years; P = 0.022) than those in the control group. Median time to next scheduled appointment was shorter in the intervention group than in the control group after a suboptimal follow-up alert (1.71 vs. 3.48 months; P < 0.001) and after a toxicity alert (2.79 vs. >6 months; P = 0.072). More than 90% of providers supported adopting the CDSS as part of standard care.
This was a 1-year informatics study conducted at a single hospital subspecialty clinic.
A CDSS using interactive provider alerts improved CD4 cell counts and clinic follow-up for patients with HIV. Wider implementation of such systems can provide important clinical benefits.
National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: With the adoption of combination antiretroviral therapy (ART), most HIV-infected individuals in care are on five or more medications and at risk of harm from polypharmacy, a risk that likely increases with number of medications, age, and physiologic frailty. Established harms of polypharmacy include decreased medication adherence and increased serious adverse drug events, including organ system injury, hospitalization, geriatric syndromes (falls, fractures, and cognitive decline) and mortality. The literature on polypharmacy among those with HIV infection is limited, and the literature on polypharmacy among non-HIV patients requires adaptation to the special issues facing those on chronic ART. First, those aging with HIV infection often initiate ART in their 3rd or 4th decade of life and are expected to remain on ART for the rest of their lives. Second, those with HIV may be at higher risk for age-associated comorbid disease, further increasing their risk of polypharmacy. Third, those with HIV may have an enhanced susceptibility to harm from polypharmacy due to decreased organ system reserve, chronic inflammation, and ongoing immune dysfunction. Finally, because ART is life-extending, nonadherence to ART is particularly concerning. After reviewing the relevant literature, we propose an adapted framework with which to address polypharmacy among those on lifelong ART and suggest areas for future work.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To describe the frequency of medication-related problems in older adults with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection.
Retrospective chart review.
HIV-positive individuals aged 60 and older and age- and sex-matched HIV-negative individuals.
Total number of medications, potentially inappropriate medications (PIMs) according to the modified Beers Criteria, anticholinergic drug burden according to the Anticholinergic Risk Scale (ARS), and drug-drug interactions using the Lexi-Interact online drug interactions database.
Of 89 HIV-positive participants, most were Caucasian (91%) and male (94%), with a median age of 64 (range 60-82). Common comorbidities included hyperlipidemia, hypertension, and depression. Participants were taking a median of 13 medications (range 2-38), of which only a median of four were antiretrovirals. At least one PIM was prescribed in 46 participants (52%). Sixty-two (70%) participants had at least one Category D (consider therapy modification) drug-drug interaction, and 10 (11%) had a Category X (avoid combination) interaction. One-third of these interactions were between two nonantiretroviral medications. Fifteen participants (17%) had an ARS score of 3 or greater. In contrast, HIV-negative participants were taking a median of six medications, 29% had at least one PIM, and 4% had an ARS score of 3 or greater (P < .05 for each comparison, except P = .07 for anticholinergic burden).
HIV-positive older adults have a high frequency of medication-related problems, of which a large portion is due to medications used to treat comorbid diseases. These medication issues were substantially higher than HIV-negative participants. Attention to the principles of geriatric prescribing is needed as this population ages in order to minimize complications from multiple medication use.
Journal of the American Geriatrics Society 02/2014; 62(3). DOI:10.1111/jgs.12695 · 4.57 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We systematically reviewed randomized controlled trials (RCTs) assessing the effectiveness of computerized decision support systems (CDSSs) featuring rule- or algorithm-based software integrated with electronic health records (EHRs) and evidence-based knowledge. We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and Cochrane Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects. Information on system design, capabilities, acquisition, implementation context, and effects on mortality, morbidity, and economic outcomes were extracted. Twenty-eight RCTs were included. CDSS use did not affect mortality (16 trials, 37395 patients; 2282 deaths; risk ratio [RR] = 0.96; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.85, 1.08; I(2) = 41%). A statistically significant effect was evident in the prevention of morbidity, any disease (9 RCTs; 13868 patients; RR = 0.82; 95% CI = 0.68, 0.99; I(2) = 64%), but selective outcome reporting or publication bias cannot be excluded. We observed differences for costs and health service utilization, although these were often small in magnitude. Across clinical settings, new generation CDSSs integrated with EHRs do not affect mortality and might moderately improve morbidity outcomes. (Am J Public Health. Published online ahead of print October 16, 2014: e1-e11. doi:10.2105/AJPH.2014.302164).
American Journal of Public Health 10/2014; 104(12):e1-e11. DOI:10.2105/AJPH.2014.302164 · 4.55 Impact Factor
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