Mitochondrial quality control turns out to be the principal suspect in parkin and PINK1-related autosomal recessive Parkinson's disease
ABSTRACT Mitochondrial dysfunction has long been suspected to play a key role in neurodegeneration in Parkinson's disease. PINK1 and Parkin, the products of two genes responsible for autosomal recessive Parkinsonian syndromes with early onset, act as a quality control system on the outer mitochondrial membrane to preserve mitochondrial integrity. While doing so, they interact with multiple molecular actors in processes regulating mitochondrial biology and cell survival. The physiological conditions that mobilize these processes in neurons, and the mechanisms underlying their integration and spatiotemporal coordination, remain to be elucidated. Understanding how dysfunction of these house-keeping pathways leads to the preferential degeneration of a specific neuronal population in Parkinson's disease is a major challenge for future research.
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- "In healthy mitochondria, PINK1 translocates to the IMM via the TOMM20 machinery, where it is cleaved and rapidly degraded by the mitochondrial inner membrane rhomboid protease presenilinassociated rhomboid-like protease (Jin et al., 2010; Meissner et al., 2011) as well as other mitochondrial proteases MMP, m-AAA and ClpXP (Van Laar & Berman, 2013). In damaged mitochondria, when the membrane potential is lowered, mitochondrial import of PINK1 by the TOMM machinery is inhibited, resulting in accumulation of full-length PINK1 on the OMM (Corti & Brice, 2013) where it plays a pivotal role in the removal of damaged mitochondria from the cell (Becker et al., 2012; Song et al., 2013). "
ABSTRACT: Parkinson's disease (PD) is characterised by the loss of dopaminergic neurons in the midbrain. Autosomal recessive, early-onset cases of PD are predominantly caused by mutations in the parkin, PINK1 and DJ-1 genes. Animal and cellular models have verified a direct link between parkin and PINK1, whereby PINK1 phosphorylates and activates parkin at the outer mitochondrial membrane, resulting in removal of dysfunctional mitochondria via mitophagy. Despite the overwhelming evidence for this interaction, few studies have been able to identify a link for DJ-1 with parkin or PINK1. The aim of this review is to summarise the functions of these three proteins, and to analyse the existing evidence for direct and indirect interactions between them. DJ-1 is able to rescue the phenotype of PINK1-knockout Drosophila models, but not of parkin-knockouts, suggesting that DJ-1 may act in a parallel pathway to that of the PINK1/parkin pathway. To further elucidate a commonality between these three proteins, bioinformatics analysis established that Miro (RHOT1) interacts with parkin and PINK1, and HSPA4 interacts with all three proteins. Furthermore, 30 transcription factors were found to be common amongst all three proteins, with many of them being involved in transcriptional regulation. Interestingly, expression of these proteins and their associated transcription factors are found to be significantly down-regulated in PD patients compared to healthy controls. In summary, this review provides insight into common pathways linking three PD-causing genes and highlights some key questions, the answers to which may provide critical insight into the disease process. © 2015 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.European Journal of Neuroscience 03/2015; 41(9). DOI:10.1111/ejn.12872 · 3.67 Impact Factor
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- "Indeed most autosomal recessive forms were found to be caused by the alteration of a gene encoding a protein localized to mitochondria, either in particular contexts, as in the case of Parkin  and DJ-1 , or constitutively for PINK1 . Furthermore, studies in various models and from many independent laboratories have provided evidence for interaction between the PARK2 and PINK1 genes and their protein products in a common pathway centered on maintenance of mitochondrial quality . In cell models Parkin and PINK1 regulate the elimination of dysfunctional mitochondria through mitophagy –. "
ABSTRACT: Loss of Parkin, encoded by PARK2 gene, is a major cause of autosomal recessive Parkinson's disease. In Drosophila and mammalian cell models Parkin has been shown in to play a role in various processes essential to maintenance of mitochondrial quality, including mitochondrial dynamics, biogenesis and degradation. However, the relevance of altered mitochondrial quality control mechanisms to neuronal survival in vivo is still under debate. We addressed this issue in the brain of PARK2-/- mice using an integrated mitochondrial evaluation, including analysis of respiration by polarography or by fluorescence, respiratory complexes activity by spectrophotometric assays, mitochondrial membrane potential by rhodamine 123 fluorescence, mitochondrial DNA content by real time PCR, and oxidative stress by total glutathione measurement, proteasome activity, SOD2 expression and proteins oxidative damage. Respiration rates were lowered in PARK2-/- brain with high resolution but not standard respirometry. This defect was specific to the striatum, where it was prominent in neurons but less severe in astrocytes. It was present in primary embryonic cells and did not worsen in vivo from 9 to 24 months of age. It was not associated with any respiratory complex defect, including complex I. Mitochondrial inner membrane potential in PARK2-/- mice was similar to that of wild-type mice but showed increased sensitivity to uncoupling with ageing in striatum. The presence of oxidative stress was suggested in the striatum by increased mitochondrial glutathione content and oxidative adducts but normal proteasome activity showed efficient compensation. SOD2 expression was increased only in the striatum of PARK2-/- mice at 24 months of age. Altogether our results show a tissue-specific mitochondrial defect, present early in life of PARK2-/- mice, mildly affecting respiration, without prominent impact on mitochondrial membrane potential, whose underlying mechanisms remain to be elucidated, as complex I defect and prominent oxidative damage were ruled out.PLoS ONE 06/2014; 9(6):e99898. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0099898 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The defining pathogenic feature of Parkinson's disease is the age-dependent loss of dopaminergic neurons. Mutations and inactivation of parkin, an ubiquitin E3 ligase, induce Parkinson's disease through accumulation of pathogenic substrates. We found that transgenic overexpression of a parkin substrate, aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase complex interacting multifunctional protein-2 (AIMP2), led to a selective, age-dependent, progressive loss of dopaminergic neurons via activation of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP1). AIMP2 accumulation in vitro and in vivo resulted in PARP1 overactivation and dopaminergic cell toxicity via direct association of these proteins in the nucleus, providing a path to PARP1 activation other than DNA damage. Inhibition of PARP1 through gene deletion or drug inhibition reversed behavioral deficits and protected against dopamine neuron death in AIMP2 transgenic mice. These data indicate that brain-permeable PARP inhibitors could effectively delay or prevent disease progression in Parkinson's disease.Nature Neuroscience 08/2013; 16(10). DOI:10.1038/nn.3500 · 14.98 Impact Factor