Having previously shown that comorbidity is a major determinant of neurological sequelae in hypoglycaemia, our aim was to describe the neuroimaging patterns of brain damage in different hypoglycaemic situations and to elucidate the factors that determine lesion topography.
We reviewed 50 patients (31 females, 19 males) with symptomatic hypoglycaemia (<2.8 mmol/L) occurring between 1 day and 5 years of age (median 4 d) who had undergone magnetic resonance imaging (MRI; at least axial T2-weighted, sagittal T1-weighted, and coronal fluid-attenuated inversion recovery [FLAIR]-weighted imaging). MRI was performed during the follow-up examination at least 1 month after the occurrence of symptomatic hypoglycaemia, i.e. between 1 month and 5 years of age (median 3 mo). Hypoglycaemia resulted from three inborn errors of metabolism: congenital hyperinsulinism (33 patients), fatty acid β-oxidation disorders (13 patients), or glycogen storage disease type I (four patients). We selected the patients with clear MRI abnormalities and analysed their topography according to aetiology and age at occurrence of the lesion.
The topography of the brain lesions depended on age: from the neonatal period to 6 months of age, lesions predominantly involved the posterior white matter; between 6 and 22 months the basal ganglia, and after 22 months the parietotemporal cortex (p=0.04).
The relationship between brain lesions and age could reflect the maturation sequence of the brain.
"Thus, considering that the brain uses glucose as a source of energy, hypoglycemia could cause alterations in brain activity [19, 20] and neuronal death in more severe cases, justifying the possibility of correlation between hypoglycemia and cognitive alterations . "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This paper provides an overview of insulin-induced hypoglycemia as a triggering factor of cognitive deficit in children with type 1 diabetes mellitus. For this purpose, databases from 1961 to 2013 were used with the objective of detecting the primary publications that address the impact of hypoglycemia on cognitive performance of diabetic children. The results obtained from experimental animals were excluded. The majority of studies demonstrated that the cognitive deficit in diabetic children involves multiple factors including duration, intensity, severity, and frequency of hypoglycemia episodes. Additionally, age at the onset of type 1 diabetes also influences the cognitive performance, considering that early inception of the disease is a predisposing factor for severe hypoglycemia. Furthermore, the results suggest that there is a strong correlation between brain damage caused by hypoglycemia and cognitive deterioration. Therefore, a more cautious follow-up and education are needed to impede and treat hypoglycemia in children with diabetes mellitus.
The Scientific World Journal 03/2014; 2014:616534. DOI:10.1155/2014/616534 · 1.73 Impact Factor
"In those with abnormal neurodevelopment, MR scan was informative, but not diagnostic of the abnormal neurodevelopment. Further, in some children, MR scanning did not show anatomical abnormalities, suggesting that brain imaging may be complimentary but not independently useful in the neurodevelopmental assessment of children with CHI, although recent evidence suggests that the timing of hypoglycemic injury may influence the anatomical distribution of brain damage (Gataullina et al., 2013). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Introduction: Neuroglycopenia is recognized to be associated with abnormal neurodevelopmental outcomes in 26–44% of children with persistent congenital hyperinsulinism (P-CHI). The prevalence of abnormal neurodevelopment in transient CHI (T-CHI) is not known. We have aimed to investigate abnormal neurodevelopment and associated factors in T-CHI and P-CHI.
Materials and Methods: A cohort of children with CHI (n = 67, age 2.5–5 years) was assessed at follow-up review and noted to have normal or abnormal (mild or severe) neurodevelopmental outcomes for the domains of speech and language, motor, and vision. Children were classified as P-CHI (n = 33), if they had undergone surgery or remained on medical therapy, or T-CHI (n = 34), if medical treatment for hypoglycemia was stopped.
Results: Overall, abnormal neurodevelopment was present in 26 (39%) children with CHI, of whom 18 (69%) were severe. Importantly, the incidence of abnormal neurodevelopment in T-CHI was similar to that in P-CHI (30 vs. 47% respectively, p = 0.16). The prevalence of severe abnormal neurodevelopment in speech, motor, and vision domains was similar in both T-CHI and P-CHI children. For this cohort, we found that the severity of disease [based upon maximal diazoxide dose (odds ratio 95% confidence intervals) 1.3 (1.1; 1.5), p = 0.03], and early presentation of CHI <7 days following birth [5.9 (1.3; 27.8), p = 0.02] were significantly associated with abnormal neurodevelopment. There was no significant association with gender, genotype, or the histopathological basis of CHI.
Conclusion: Abnormal neurodevelopment was evident in one third of children with both T-CHI and P-CHI, early presentation and severe CHI being risk factors. Early recognition and rapid correction of hypoglycemia are advocated to avoid abnormal neurodevelopment in children with CHI.
Frontiers in Endocrinology 05/2013; 4:60. DOI:10.3389/fendo.2013.00060
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The adult brain accounts for a disproportionally large percentage of the body’s total energy consumption (1). However, during brain development,energy demand is even higher, reaching the adult rate by age 2 and increasing to nearly twice the adult rate by age 10, followed by gradual reduction toward adult levels in the next decade (1,2). The dramatic changes in brain metabolism occurring over the first two decades of life coincide with the initial proliferation and then pruning of synapses to adult levels.The brain derives its energy almost exclusively from glucose and is largely driven by neuronal signaling, biosynthesis, and neuroprotection (3–6).Glucose homeostasis in the body is tightly regulated by a series of hormones and physiologic responses. As a result, hypoglycemia and hyperglycemia are rare occurrences in normal individuals, but they occur commonly inpatients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) due to a dysfunction of peripheral glucose-insulin-glucagon responses and non-physiologic doses of exogenous insulin, which imperfectly mimic normal physiology. These extremes can occur more frequently in children and adolescents with T1DM due to the inadequacies of insulin replacement therapy, events leading to the diagnosis [prolonged untreated hyperglycemia and diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA)], and to behavioral factors interfering with optimal treatment. When faced with fluctuations in glucose supply the metabolism of the body and brain change dramatically, largely to conserve resources and, at a cost to other organs, to preserve brain function (7). However,if the normal physiological mechanisms that prevent these severe glucose fluctuations and maintain homeostasis are impaired, neuronal function and potentially viability can be affected (8–11).
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