Topography of brain damage in metabolic hypoglycaemia is determined by age at which hypoglycaemia occurred
ABSTRACT Aim Having previously shown that comorbidity is a major determinant of neurological sequelae in hypoglycaemia, our aim was to describe the neuroimaging patterns of brain damage in different hypoglycaemic situations and to elucidate the factors that determine lesion topography. Method We reviewed 50 patients (31 females, 19 males) with symptomatic hypoglycaemia (<2.8mmol/L) occurring between 1 day and 5 years of age (median 4d) who had undergone magnetic resonance imaging (MRI; at least axial T2-weighted, sagittal T1-weighted, and coronal fluid-attenuated inversion recovery [FLAIR]-weighted imaging). MRI was performed during the follow-up examination at least 1 month after the occurrence of symptomatic hypoglycaemia, i.e. between 1 month and 5 years of age (median 3mo). Hypoglycaemia resulted from three inborn errors of metabolism: congenital hyperinsulinism (33 patients), fatty acid β-oxidation disorders (13 patients), or glycogen storage disease type I (four patients). We selected the patients with clear MRI abnormalities and analysed their topography according to aetiology and age at occurrence of the lesion. Results The topography of the brain lesions depended on age: from the neonatal period to 6 months of age, lesions predominantly involved the posterior white matter; between 6 and 22 months the basal ganglia, and after 22 months the parietotemporal cortex (p=0.04). Interpretation The relationship between brain lesions and age could reflect the maturation sequence of the brain.
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ABSTRACT: Introduction: Neuroglycopenia is recognized to be associated with abnormal neurodevelopmental outcomes in 26–44% of children with persistent congenital hyperinsulinism (P-CHI). The prevalence of abnormal neurodevelopment in transient CHI (T-CHI) is not known. We have aimed to investigate abnormal neurodevelopment and associated factors in T-CHI and P-CHI. Materials and Methods: A cohort of children with CHI (n = 67, age 2.5–5 years) was assessed at follow-up review and noted to have normal or abnormal (mild or severe) neurodevelopmental outcomes for the domains of speech and language, motor, and vision. Children were classified as P-CHI (n = 33), if they had undergone surgery or remained on medical therapy, or T-CHI (n = 34), if medical treatment for hypoglycemia was stopped. Results: Overall, abnormal neurodevelopment was present in 26 (39%) children with CHI, of whom 18 (69%) were severe. Importantly, the incidence of abnormal neurodevelopment in T-CHI was similar to that in P-CHI (30 vs. 47% respectively, p = 0.16). The prevalence of severe abnormal neurodevelopment in speech, motor, and vision domains was similar in both T-CHI and P-CHI children. For this cohort, we found that the severity of disease [based upon maximal diazoxide dose (odds ratio 95% confidence intervals) 1.3 (1.1; 1.5), p = 0.03], and early presentation of CHI <7 days following birth [5.9 (1.3; 27.8), p = 0.02] were significantly associated with abnormal neurodevelopment. There was no significant association with gender, genotype, or the histopathological basis of CHI. Conclusion: Abnormal neurodevelopment was evident in one third of children with both T-CHI and P-CHI, early presentation and severe CHI being risk factors. Early recognition and rapid correction of hypoglycemia are advocated to avoid abnormal neurodevelopment in children with CHI.Frontiers in Endocrinology 05/2013; 4:60. DOI:10.3389/fendo.2013.00060
- Pediatric Diabetes 10/2013; 14(8). DOI:10.1111/pedi.12088 · 2.13 Impact Factor
Article: Update on neonatal hypoglycemia.[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Neonatal hypoglycemia is one of the most common biochemical abnormalities encountered in the newborn. However, controversy remains surrounding its definition and management especially in asymptomatic patients. New information has been published that describes the incidence and timing of low glucose concentrations in the groups most at risk for asymptomatic neonatal hypoglycemia. Furthermore, one large prospective study failed to find an association between repetitive low glucose concentrations and poor neurodevelopmental outcomes in preterm infants. But hypoglycemia due to hyperinsulinism, especially genetic causes, continued to be associated with brain injury. New advances were made in the diagnosis and management of hyperinsulinism, including acquired hyperinsulinism in small for gestational age infants and others. Continuous glucose monitoring remains an attractive strategy for future research in this area. The fundamental question of how best to manage asymptomatic newborns with low glucose concentrations remains unanswered. Balancing the risks of overtreating newborns with low glucose concentrations who are undergoing a normal transition following birth against the risks of undertreating those in whom low glucose concentrations are pathological, dangerous, and/or a harbinger of serious metabolic disease remains a challenge.Current opinion in endocrinology, diabetes, and obesity 11/2013; DOI:10.1097/MED.0000000000000027 · 3.77 Impact Factor