Ensembl 2013

European Bioinformatics Institute, Wellcome Trust Genome Campus, Hinxton Cambridge CB10 1SD, UK and Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, Wellcome Trust Genome Campus, Hinxton, Cambridge CB10 1SA, UK.
Nucleic Acids Research (Impact Factor: 8.81). 11/2012; 41(Database issue). DOI: 10.1093/nar/gks1236
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The Ensembl project ( provides genome information for sequenced chordate genomes with a particular focus on human, mouse, zebrafish and rat. Our resources include evidenced-based gene sets for all supported species; large-scale whole genome multiple species alignments across vertebrates and clade-specific alignments for eutherian mammals, primates, birds and fish; variation data resources for 17 species and regulation annotations based on ENCODE and other data sets. Ensembl data are accessible through the genome browser at and through other tools and programmatic interfaces.


Available from: Nathan Johnson, Jun 10, 2015
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    ABSTRACT: Background Signaling via B cell receptor (BCR) and Toll-like receptors (TLRs) results in activation of B cells with distinct physiological outcomes, but transcriptional regulatory mechanisms that drive activation and distinguish these pathways remain unknown. Results Two hours after ligand exposure RNA-seq, ChIP-seq and computational methods reveal that BCR- or TLR-mediated activation of primary resting B cells proceeds via a large set of shared and a smaller subset of distinct signal-selective transcriptional responses. BCR stimulation resulted in increased global recruitment of RNA Pol II to promoters that appear to transit slowly to downstream regions. Conversely, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulation involved an enhanced RNA Pol II transition from initiating to elongating mode accompanied by greater H3K4me3 activation markings compared to BCR stimulation. These rapidly diverging transcriptomic landscapes also show distinct repressing (H3K27me3) histone signatures, mutually exclusive transcription factor binding in promoters, and unique miRNA profiles. Conclusions Upon examination of genome-wide transcription and regulatory elements, we conclude that the B cell commitment to different activation states occurs much earlier than previously thought and involves a multi-faceted receptor-specific transcriptional landscape. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s13072-015-0012-x) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
    Epigenetics & Chromatin 05/2015; 8(1). DOI:10.1186/s13072-015-0012-x · 4.46 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The integrin-adhesome network, which contains >150 proteins, is mechano-transducing and located at discreet positions along the cell-cell and cell-extracellular matrix interface. A small subset of the integrin-adhesome is known to maintain normal muscle morphology. However, the importance of the entire adhesome for muscle structure and function is unknown. We used RNA interference to knockdown 113 putative Caenorhabditis elegans homologs constituting most of the mammalian adhesome and 48 proteins known to localize to attachment sites in C. elegans muscle. In both cases, we found >90% of components were required for normal muscle mitochondrial structure and/or proteostasis vs. empty vector controls. Approximately half of these, mainly proteins that physically interact with each other, were also required for normal sarcomere and/or adhesome structure. Next we confirmed that the dystrophy observed in adhesome mutants associates with impaired maximal mitochondrial ATP production (P < 0.01), as well as reduced probability distribution of muscle movement forces compared with wild-type animals. Our results show that the integrin-adhesome network as a whole is required for maintaining both muscle structure and function and extend the current understanding of the full complexities of the functional adhesome in vivo.-Etheridge, T., Rahman, M., Gaffney, C. J., Shaw, D., Shephard, F., Magudia, J., Solomon, D. E., Milne, T., Blawzdziewicz, J., Constantin-Teodosiu, D., Greenhaff, P. L., Vanapalli, S. A., Szewczyk, N. J. The integrin-adhesome is required to maintain muscle structure, mitochondrial ATP production, and movement forces in Caenorhabditis elegans. © FASEB.
    The FASEB Journal 12/2014; 29(4). DOI:10.1096/fj.14-259119 · 5.48 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We have accumulated considerable data on the genetic makeup of the Icelandic population by sequencing the whole genomes of 2,636 Icelanders to depth of at least 10X and by chip genotyping 101,584 more. The sequencing was done with Illumina technology. The median sequencing depth was 20X and 909 individuals were sequenced to a depth of at least 30X. We found 20 million single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and 1.5 million insertions/deletions (indels) that passed stringent quality control. Almost all the common SNPs (derived allele frequency (DAF) over 2%) that we identified in Iceland have been observed by either dbSNP (build 137) or the Exome Sequencing Project (ESP) while only 60 and 20% of rare (DAF<0.5%) SNPs and indels in coding regions, the most heavily studied parts of the genome, have been observed in the public databases. Features of our variant data, such as the transition/transversion ratio and the length distribution of indels, are similar to published reports.
    03/2015; 2:150011. DOI:10.1038/sdata.2015.11