The barrier function of skin is due to the thin layer on the uppermost surface of the skin called the epidermis. The epidermis has a multilayered structure in which each layer consists of keratinocytes (KCs) of different differentiation status. The integrity of KC differentiation is critical for the function of skin and its abrogation causes or is accompanied by skin diseases. Intracellular and extracellular Ca(2+) are known to play important roles in KC differentiation. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying Ca(2+)-regulation of KC differentiation are still largely unknown. Store-operated Ca(2+) entry (SOCE) is a major Ca(2+) influx pathway in most non-excitable cells. SOCE is evoked in response to a fall in [Ca(2+)] in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Two proteins have been identified as essential components of SOCE: STIM1, a Ca(2+) sensor in the ER, and Orai1, a subunit of Ca(2+) channels in the plasma membrane. In this study, we analyzed the contribution of SOCE to KC growth and differentiation using RNAi knockdown of STIM1 and Orai1 in the human keratinocyte cell line, HaCaT. KC differentiation was induced by a switch in extracellular Ca(2+) concentration from low (0.03 mM; undifferentiated KCs) to high (1.8 mM; differentiated KCs). This Ca(2+) switch triggers phospholipase C-mediated intracellular Ca(2+) signals (Ca(2+)-switch-induced Ca(2+) response), which would likely involve the activation of SOCE. Knockdown of either STIM1 or Orai1 strongly suppressed SOCE and almost completely abolished the Ca(2+)-switch-induced Ca(2+) responses, resulting in impaired expression of keratin1, an early KC differentiation marker. Furthermore, loss of either STIM1 or Orai1 suppressed normal growth of HaCaT cells in low Ca(2+) condition and inhibited the growth arrest in response to Ca(2+) switch. These results demonstrate that SOCE plays multiple critical roles in KC differentiation and function.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Transthyretin (TTR) is a known carrier protein for thyroxine (T4) and retinol-binding protein in the blood that is primarily synthesized in the liver and choroid plexus of the brain. Herein, we report that the TTR gene is expressed in skeletal muscle tissue and up-regulated during myotube formation in C2C12 cells. TTR silencing (TTRkd) significantly reduced myogenin expression and myotube formation, whereas myogenin silencing (MYOGkd) did not have any effect on TTR gene expression. Both TTRkd and MYOGkd led to a decrease in calcium channel related genes including Cav1.1, STIM1 and Orai1. A significant decrease in intracellular T4 uptake during myogenesis was observed in TTRkd cells. Taken together, the results of this study suggest that TTR initiates myoblast differentiation via affecting expression of the genes involved during early stage of myogenesis and the genes related to calcium channel.
PLoS ONE 05/2013; 8(5):e63627. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0063627 · 3.23 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To achieve and maintain skin architecture and homeostasis, keratinocytes must intricately balance growth, differentiation, and polarized motility known to be governed by calcium. Orai1 is a pore subunit of a store-operated Ca(2+) channel that is a major molecular counterpart for Ca(2+) influx in nonexcitable cells. To elucidate the physiological significance of Orai1 in skin, we studied its functions in epidermis of mice, with targeted disruption of the orai1 gene, human skin sections, and primary keratinocytes. We demonstrate that Orai1 protein is mainly confined to the basal layer of epidermis where it plays a critical role to control keratinocyte proliferation and polarized motility. Orai1 loss of function alters keratinocyte differentiation both in vitro and in vivo. Exploring underlying mechanisms, we show that the activation of Orai1-mediated calcium entry leads to enhancing focal adhesion turnover via a PKCβ-Calpain-focal adhesion kinase pathway. Our findings provide insight into the functions of the Orai1 channel in the maintenance of skin homeostasis.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 11/2013; 110(50). DOI:10.1073/pnas.1310394110 · 9.67 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Four types of Ca(2+) selective ion channels are known, 10 voltage gated Ca(2+) (CaV) channels, four CatSper channels, three store operated CRAC channels (ORAI channels) and at least two members of the TRPV subfamily (TRPV5, TRPV6). Some of the other TRP channels also show some Ca(2+) selectivity like certain splice variants of TRPM3. In addition to Ca(2+) selective channels, various cation channels play an important role for Ca(2+) entry and furthermore, they may also regulate Ca(2+) entry through other channels by modulating the membrane potential or other means as outlined in this review. Of the different types of cation channels, TRP channels form one of the most prominent families of non-selective cation channels with functional relevance in electrically non-excitable and electrically excitable cell types. Among these, the seven channels of the TRPC subfamily are rather non-selective with very modest Ca(2+) selectivity, whereas in the other subfamilies, cation selectivity ranges from monovalent selectivity (i.e. TRPM4, TRPM5) to divalent selectivity (i.e. TRPM6, TRPM7) or Ca(2+) selectivity (i.e. TRPV5, TRPV6). Rather than discussing the heavily reviewed individual functions of ORAI or TRP channels, we summarize data and present models how TRP and ORAI may functionally interact to guide cellular functions. We focus on T lymphocytes representing a more ORAI-dominated tissue and skin as model system in which both ORAI and TRP channel have been reported to control relevant functions. We present several interaction models how ORAI and TRP may interfere with each other's function.
European journal of pharmacology 11/2013; 739. DOI:10.1016/j.ejphar.2013.10.071 · 2.53 Impact Factor
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