Increasing autism prevalence in metropolitan New Jersey
ABSTRACT High baseline autism spectrum disorder prevalence estimates in New Jersey led to a follow-up surveillance. The objectives were to determine autism spectrum disorder prevalence in the year 2006 in New Jersey and to identify changes in the prevalence of autism spectrum disorder or in the characteristics of the children with autism spectrum disorder, between 2002 and 2006. The cohorts included 30,570 children, born in 1998 and 28,936 children, born in 1994, residing in Hudson, Union, and Ocean counties, New Jersey. Point prevalence estimates by sex, ethnicity, autism spectrum disorder subtype, and previous autism spectrum disorder diagnosis were determined. For 2006, a total of 533 children with autism spectrum disorder were identified, consistent with prevalence of 17.4 per 1000 (95% confidence interval = 15.9-18.9), indicating a significant increase in the autism spectrum disorder prevalence (p < 0.001), between 2002 (10.6 per 1000) and 2006. The rise in autism spectrum disorder was broad, affecting major demographic groups and subtypes. Boys with autism spectrum disorder outnumbered girls by nearly 5:1. Autism spectrum disorder prevalence was higher among White children than children of other ethnicities. Additional studies are needed to specify the influence of better awareness of autism spectrum disorder prevalence estimates and to identify possible autism spectrum disorder risk factors. More resources are necessary to address the needs of individuals affected by autism spectrum disorder.
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: This article provides a selective review of advances in scientific knowledge about autism spectrum disorder (ASD), using DSM-5 (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fifth edition) diagnostic criteria as a framework for the discussion. We review literature that prompted changes to the organization of ASD symptoms and diagnostic subtypes in DSM-IV, and we examine the rationale for new DSM-5 specifiers, modifiers, and severity ratings as well as the introduction of the diagnosis of social (pragmatic) communication disorder. Our goal is to summarize and critically consider the contribution of clinical psychology research, along with that of other disciplines, to the current conceptualization of ASD. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Clinical Psychology Volume 11 is March 28, 2015. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/catalog/pubdates.aspx for revised estimates.Annual Review of Clinical Psychology 01/2015; 11(1). DOI:10.1146/annurev-clinpsy-032814-112745 · 12.92 Impact Factor
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: This paper extensively and comprehensively reviews the literature on epidemiology of autism focusing on the prevalence rates of Autistic Disorder (AD) and Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), and the potential negative impact of DSM-5 ASD on future ASD prevalence studies. Between 1966 and 2013, there are 72 published prevalence studies of AD and 61 published studies of ASD. The AD has a broad range of prevalence rates and has shown a trend of increasing rates over time. But there are also some evidences showing that the increase seems to have leveled off. The current prevalence of AD is estimated in the range of 10–30 per 10,000 people (i.e., 1 in 1000 to 1 in 333). The ASD also has a wide range of prevalence rates with a median rate of 69.5 per 10,000 people (1 in 144). When the prevalence rates are subdivided into several sub-ranges (e.g., 10–20, 20–40, etc. per 10,000), it is difficult to pick a particular sub-range to represent the prevalence of ASD. The present review notes that several recent studies comparing the utility of DSM-IV/DSM-IV-TR ASD and the DSM-5 ASD have reported that about 9–54% of DSM-IV ASD cases do not qualify for the DSM-5 ASD. Suggestions of research designs for future ASD prevalence studies are offered.Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders 11/2014; 8(11):1454–1470. DOI:10.1016/j.rasd.2014.07.016 · 2.96 Impact Factor