Extraintestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli: an update on antimicrobial resistance, laboratory diagnosis and treatment.
ABSTRACT Escherichia coli remains one of the most frequent causes of nosocomial and community-acquired bacterial infections including urinary tract infections, enteric infections and systemic infections in humans. Extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli (ExPEC) had emerged during the 2000s as an important player in the resistance to antibiotics, especially to the cephalosporins and fluoroquinolones. Most importantly, among ExPEC is the increasing recognition of isolates producing 'newer β-lactamases' that consist of plasmid-mediated AmpC β-lactamases (e.g., CMY), extended-spectrum β-lactamases (e.g., CTX-M) and carbapenemases (e.g., New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase, Klebsiella pneumonaie carbapenemase and OXA-48). This review will highlight recent aspects on antimicrobial resistance in ExPEC, including the laboratory detection of these isolates, and describe some treatment options for infections due to antimicrobial-resistant isolates.
SourceAvailable from: Anthony Mansour[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are among the most common bacterial infections affecting women. UTIs are primarily caused by Escherichia coli, which increases the likelihood of a recurrent infection. We encountered two cases of recurrent UTIs (rUTIs) with a positive E. coli culture, not improving with antibiotics due to the development of antibiotic resistance. An alternative therapeutic regimen based on parsley and garlic, L-arginine, probiotics, and cranberry tablets has been given. This regimen showed a significant health improvement and symptoms relief without recurrence for more than 12 months. In conclusion, the case supports the concept of using alternative medicine in treating rUTI and as a prophylaxis or in patients who had developed antibiotic resistance.Case Reports in Medicine 12/2014; 2014. DOI:10.1155/2014/698758
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Escherichia coli sequence type 131 (ST131) and Klebsiella pneumoniae ST258 emerged in the 2000s as important human pathogens, have spread extensively throughout the world, and are responsible for the rapid increase in antimicrobial resistance among E. coli and K. pneumoniae strains, respectively. E. coli ST131 causes extraintestinal infections and is often fluoroquinolone resistant and associated with extended-spectrum β-lactamase production, especially CTX-M-15. K. pneumoniae ST258 causes urinary and respiratory tract infections and is associated with carbapenemases, most often KPC-2 and KPC-3. The most prevalent lineage within ST131 is named fimH30 because it contains the H30 variant of the type 1 fimbrial adhesin gene, and recent molecular studies have demonstrated that this lineage emerged in the early 2000s and was then followed by the rapid expansion of its sublineages H30-R and H30-Rx. K. pneumoniae ST258 comprises 2 distinct lineages, namely clade I and clade II. Moreover, it seems that ST258 is a hybrid clone that was created by a large recombination event between ST11 and ST442. Epidemic plasmids with blaCTX-M and blaKPC belonging to incompatibility group F have contributed significantly to the success of these clones. E. coli ST131 and K. pneumoniae ST258 are the quintessential examples of international multidrug-resistant high-risk clones. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.Clinical microbiology reviews 07/2015; 28(3):565-591. DOI:10.1128/CMR.00116-14 · 16.00 Impact Factor
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Escherichia coli ST131emerged during the early to mid-2000s is an important human pathogen, has spread extensively throughout the world, and is responsible for the rapid increase in antimicrobial resistance among E. coli. ST131 is known to cause extraintestinal infections, being fluoroquinolone resistant, and is associated with ESBL production most often due to CTX-M-15. Recent molecular epidemiologic studies using whole-genome sequencing and phylogenetic analysis have demonstrated that the H30 ST131 lineage emerged in early 2000s that was followed by the rapid expansion of its sublineages H30-R and H30-Rx. Escherichia coli ST131 clearly has all of the essential characteristics that define a high-risk clone and might be the quintessential example of an international multiresistant high-risk clone. We urgently need rapid cost-effective detection methods for E. coli ST131, as well as well-designed epidemiological and molecular studies to understand the dynamics of transmission, risk factors, and reservoirs for ST131. This will provide insight into the emergence and spread of this multiresistant sequence type that will hopefully lead to information essential for preventing the spread of ST131. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.Advances in applied microbiology 90C:109-154. DOI:10.1016/bs.aambs.2014.09.002 · 2.24 Impact Factor