Extraintestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli: an update on antimicrobial resistance, laboratory diagnosis and treatment.
ABSTRACT Escherichia coli remains one of the most frequent causes of nosocomial and community-acquired bacterial infections including urinary tract infections, enteric infections and systemic infections in humans. Extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli (ExPEC) had emerged during the 2000s as an important player in the resistance to antibiotics, especially to the cephalosporins and fluoroquinolones. Most importantly, among ExPEC is the increasing recognition of isolates producing 'newer β-lactamases' that consist of plasmid-mediated AmpC β-lactamases (e.g., CMY), extended-spectrum β-lactamases (e.g., CTX-M) and carbapenemases (e.g., New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase, Klebsiella pneumonaie carbapenemase and OXA-48). This review will highlight recent aspects on antimicrobial resistance in ExPEC, including the laboratory detection of these isolates, and describe some treatment options for infections due to antimicrobial-resistant isolates.
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ABSTRACT: Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are among the most common bacterial infections affecting women. UTIs are primarily caused by Escherichia coli, which increases the likelihood of a recurrent infection. We encountered two cases of recurrent UTIs (rUTIs) with a positive E. coli culture, not improving with antibiotics due to the development of antibiotic resistance. An alternative therapeutic regimen based on parsley and garlic, L-arginine, probiotics, and cranberry tablets has been given. This regimen showed a significant health improvement and symptoms relief without recurrence for more than 12 months. In conclusion, the case supports the concept of using alternative medicine in treating rUTI and as a prophylaxis or in patients who had developed antibiotic resistance.Case Reports in Medicine 12/2014; 2014. DOI:10.1155/2014/698758
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ABSTRACT: Escherichia coli ST131emerged during the early to mid-2000s is an important human pathogen, has spread extensively throughout the world, and is responsible for the rapid increase in antimicrobial resistance among E. coli. ST131 is known to cause extraintestinal infections, being fluoroquinolone resistant, and is associated with ESBL production most often due to CTX-M-15. Recent molecular epidemiologic studies using whole-genome sequencing and phylogenetic analysis have demonstrated that the H30 ST131 lineage emerged in early 2000s that was followed by the rapid expansion of its sublineages H30-R and H30-Rx. Escherichia coli ST131 clearly has all of the essential characteristics that define a high-risk clone and might be the quintessential example of an international multiresistant high-risk clone. We urgently need rapid cost-effective detection methods for E. coli ST131, as well as well-designed epidemiological and molecular studies to understand the dynamics of transmission, risk factors, and reservoirs for ST131. This will provide insight into the emergence and spread of this multiresistant sequence type that will hopefully lead to information essential for preventing the spread of ST131. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.Advances in applied microbiology 90C:109-154. DOI:10.1016/bs.aambs.2014.09.002 · 2.24 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Influenza viruses type A and type B are a leading cause of annual epidemics in human populations. Since the 1970s, influenza B viruses have diverged into two antigenically distinct virus lineages called the Yamagata and Victoria lineages. We describe the validation and implementation of a one-step real-time RT-PCR (rRT-PCR) assay that can differentiate between the two genetic lineages of type B. Validation of rRT-PCR method was carried out using quantified positive control and reference influenza viruses with specific minor groove binder (MGB) probes. The assay was applied on 102 clinical specimens detected positive for influenza type B. Detection limit was found to be as low as 7.95 RNA copies per reaction. The interassay variability and intra-assay variability were found to be low, and comparable for Yamagata and Victoria lineages. No cross-reactivity with the tested subtypes of influenza type A, known to cause human infections, was noticed. Differentiation of influenza B lineages by rRT-PCR was successfully achieved on all of the known positive type B samples. From the total number of clinical specimens tested, 85 samples belonged to B/Yamagata and 17 samples to B/Victoria lineage. Differentiation of genetic lineage B influenza virus circulating in Romania in the next seasons by one-step real-time RT-PCR method will supplement the classical test, haemagglutination inhibition (HI), which requires growing of the virus. This method can be advantageous for a balanced selection of samples, in case of lineages co-circulation, for genetic and antigenic characterization.