Readiness and Associated Health Behaviors and Symptoms in Recently Deployed Army National Guard Solders
ABSTRACT To examine major factors affecting readiness in the Army National Guard (ARNG), 265 soldiers of the Pennsylvania ARNG redeploying in 2010 from Iraq and Afghanistan were evaluated with validated questionnaires during their first unit formation. The questionnaires assessed demographic information, health habits, levels of perceived stress, mood, diet, sleep, and exercise habits, and included a screening question for depression. Our analysis revealed no negative effects of multiple deployments in this cohort of ARNG soldiers. There was no apparent impact on readiness attributable to soldiers' living locations; there did not appear to be an urban-rural divide. There were, however, numerous opportunities to improve health behaviors, including smoking (prevalence of 41%), poor dietary choices and sleep habits, as well as management of stress and mood disorders. A striking prevalence of sleep apnea exists in these ARNG soldiers (40%), approximately double that previously measured in the general U.S. population. Soldiers with high stress, depression, poor sleep quality, and sleep apnea are at increased long-term risk for cardiovascular complications and deserve focused interventions to encourage lifestyle behavior change.
Full-textDOI: · Available from: Arn Eliasson, Jan 03, 2014
SourceAvailable from: Rebecca B Costello[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: A systematic review was conducted using Samueli Institute's Rapid Evidence Assessment of the Literature (REAL(C)) process to determine the evidence base for melatonin as an agent to optimize sleep or improve sleep quality, and generalize the results to a military, civilian, or other healthy, active, adult population. Multiple databases were searched yielding 35 randomized controlled trials (RCTs) meeting the review's inclusion criteria, which were assessed for methodological quality as well as for melatonin effectiveness. The majority of included studies were high quality (83.0%). Overall, there was insufficient evidence to make strong recommendations regarding melatonin usage for any of the categories under review. A weak recommendation was made for preventing phase shifts from jet lag, for improving insomnia in both healthy volunteers and individuals with a history of insomnia, and for initiating sleep and/or improving sleep efficacy. No recommendations for use in shift workers or to improve hormonal phase shift changes in healthy people can be made. Larger and longer-duration RCTs utilizing well characterized products are needed to warrant melatonin recommendations in young, healthy adults.Nutrition Journal 11/2014; 13(1):106. DOI:10.1186/1475-2891-13-106 · 2.64 Impact Factor
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: We assessed the relationship between active duty status and daily insufficient sleep in a telephone survey. U.S. military service status (recent defined as past 12 months and past defined as >12 months ago) and daily insufficient sleep in the past 30 days were assessed among 566,861 adults aged 18 to 64 years and 271,202 adults aged ≥65 years in the 2009 to 2010 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System surveys. Among ages 18 to 64 years, 1.1% reported recent active duty and 7.1% had past service; among ages ≥65 years, 0.6% reported recent and 24.6% had past service. Among ages 18 to 64 years, prevalence of daily insufficient sleep was 13.7% among those reporting recent duty, 12.6% for those with past service, and 11.2% for those with no service. Insufficient sleep did not vary significantly with active duty status among ages ≥65 years. After adjustment for sociodemographic characteristics, health behaviors, and frequent mental distress in multivariate logistic regression models, respondents aged 18 to 64 years with recent active duty were 34% more likely and those with past service were 23% more likely to report daily insufficient sleep than those with no service (p < 0.05, both). Adults with either recent or past active duty have a greater risk for daily insufficient sleep. Reprint & Copyright © 2015 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.Military medicine 01/2015; 180(1):68-76. DOI:10.7205/MILMED-D-14-00158 · 0.77 Impact Factor