Cyclists' improvement of pedaling efficacy and performance after heavy strength training.
ABSTRACT The authors tested whether heavy strength training, including hip-flexion exercise, would reduce the extent of the phase in the crank revolution where negative or retarding crank torque occurs. Negative torque normally occurs in the upstroke phase when the leg is lifted by flexing the hip. Eighteen well-trained cyclists either performed 12 wk of heavy strength training in addition to their usual endurance training (E+S; n = 10) or merely continued their usual endurance training during the intervention period (E; n = 8). The strength training consisted of 4 lower body exercises (3 × 4-10 repetition maximum) performed twice a week. E+S enhanced cycling performance by 7%, which was more than in E (P = .02). Performance was determined as average power output in a 5-min all-out trial performed subsequent to 185 min of submaximal cycling. The performance enhancement, which has been reported previously, was here shown to be accompanied by improved pedaling efficacy during the all-out cycling. Thus, E+S shortened the phase where negative crank torque occurs by ~16°, corresponding to ~14%, which was more than in E (P = .002). In conclusion, adding heavy strength training to usual endurance training in well-trained cyclists improves pedaling efficacy during 5-min all-out cycling performed after 185 min of cycling.
Full-textDOI: · Available from: Bent R Rønnestad, Jul 07, 2015
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ABSTRACT: The crank torque represents the kinetics of the propulsive torque within the crank cycle. These kinetics are one of the important determinants of cycling performance. At our knowledge, works in literature concerning the pedaling pattern of master cyclist is lacking although this group of cyclists concerns the majority of practitioners. The purpose of this experimentation is to study the biomechanics of cycling in masters cyclists during an incremental test. Eleven trained masters cyclists (53.5 ± 4.1 years) have participated at this study. The results indicate that the master cyclists have a significant asymmetry (30 ± 8 to 23 ± 13 %) during the pedaling exercise at all power output level tested in this study (100, 150, 200 and 250 W). The present preliminary study suggests that the pedaling pattern asymmetry observed in the master cyclists should be taken into account to prevent knee or muscle overuse injuries.
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ABSTRACT: The purpose was to investigate the effect of 25 weeks heavy strength training in young elite cyclists. Nine cyclists performed endurance training and heavy strength training (ES) while seven cyclists performed endurance training only (E). ES, but not E, resulted in increases in isometric half squat performance, lean lower body mass, peak power output during Wingate test, peak aerobic power output (Wmax), power output at 4 mmol L−1 [la−], mean power output during 40-min all-out trial, and earlier occurrence of peak torque during the pedal stroke (P < 0.05). ES achieved superior improvements in Wmax and mean power output during 40-min all-out trial compared with E (P < 0.05). The improvement in 40-min all-out performance was associated with the change toward achieving peak torque earlier in the pedal stroke (r = 0.66, P < 0.01). Neither of the groups displayed alterations in VO2max or cycling economy. In conclusion, heavy strength training leads to improved cycling performance in elite cyclists as evidenced by a superior effect size of ES training vs E training on relative improvements in power output at 4 mmol L−1 [la−], peak power output during 30-s Wingate test, Wmax, and mean power output during 40-min all-out trial.Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports 06/2014; 25(1). DOI:10.1111/sms.12257 · 3.17 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: This study investigated the effects of two training programmes of 6 weeks combining strength and balance exercises in different proportions. One training programme [n = 10; 71.4 (6.3) years] consisted mainly of strength exercises (ST) and the other programme [n = 8; 71.4 (6.4) years] included a majority of balance exercises (BT). Maximal strength of lower leg muscles and centre of pressure (CoP) steadiness during upright stance in various sensory conditions were measured before and after training. The input-output relation of motor evoked potential (MEP) induced by transcranial magnetic stimulation and H reflex was also assessed in soleus during upright standing. The maximal strength of the ankle plantar flexor muscles increased after training programmes (p < 0.001) with a trend for greater gain in ST (+ 35.7%) compared with BT (+ 20.8%, p = 0.055). The gain in strength was positively correlated with the increase in voluntary activation (p < 0.001). Both training programmes decreased maximal amplitude and mean fluctuations of CoP displacements recorded in the backward-forward direction when standing on a foam mat (p < 0.05) but not on a rigid surface. The electromyographic activity of the ankle plantar flexor muscles during upright standing decreased (p < 0.05) after training but not for the tibialis anterior. Results obtained for H reflex and MEP input-output relations suggest an increased efficacy of Ia afferents to activate low-threshold motor neurones and a decrease in corticospinal excitability after training. This study indicates that short-term training combining strength and balance exercises increases maximal strength and induces change in the neural control of lower leg muscles during upright standing.Experimental Gerontology 11/2014; 61. DOI:10.1016/j.exger.2014.11.013 · 3.53 Impact Factor