Activity and specificity of necrostatin-1, small-molecule inhibitor of RIP1 kinase

Department of Biochemistry, Tufts University, Boston, MA, USA.
Cell death and differentiation (Impact Factor: 8.39). 11/2012; 20(2). DOI: 10.1038/cdd.2012.133
Source: PubMed
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    ABSTRACT: Sepsis is a life-threatening illness that occurs due to an abnormal host immune network which extends through the initial widespread and overwhelming inflammation, and culminates at the late stage of immunosupression. Recently, interest has been shifted toward therapies aimed at reversing the accompanying periods of immune suppression. Studies in experimental animals and critically ill patients have demonstrated that increased apoptosis of lymphoid organs and some parenchymal tissues contributes to this immune suppression, anergy and organ dysfunction. Immediate to the discoveries of the intracellular proteases, caspases for the induction of apoptosis and inflammation, and their striking roles in sepsis have been focused elaborately in a number of original and review articles. Here we revisited the different aspects of caspases in terms of apoptosis, pyroptosis, necroptosis and inflammation and focused their links in sepsis by reviewing several recent findings. In addition, we have documented striking perspectives which not only rewrite the pathophysiology, but also modernize our understanding for developing novel therapeutics against sepsis.
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    ABSTRACT: Necroptosis is a regulated necrotic cell death that involves receptor-interacting protein kinases RIPK1 and RIPK3. Here, we report that edelfosine triggers a rapid and massive cell death in human glioblastoma cells with characteristics of necrosis. Only a minor proportion of edelfosine-treated cells underwent caspase-dependent apoptosis. Autophagy and a rapid influx of extracellular calcium into the cells had little impact on cell death. Levels of procaspase-8 were very low in necroptosis-prone glioma cells compared with the levels in other cancer cell types that underwent apoptosis upon edelfosine treatment. The RIPK1-dependent necroptosis inhibitors necrostatin-1 (Nec-1) and Nec-1s as well as siRNA-mediated silencing of RIPK3 inhibited edelfosine-induced necroptosis, resulting in increased caspase-dependent apoptosis in edelfosine-treated glioblastoma U118 cells. Inhibition of the RIPK3 substrate MLKL with necrosulfonamide also increased apoptosis in edelfosine-treated cells. These data support a major role for RIPK1 and RIPK3 in the induction of necrotic cell death and in the switch from necrosis to apoptosis following edelfosine treatment. These results indicate that the ether lipid edelfosine exerts a rapid necroptotic cell death in apoptosis-reluctant glioblastoma cells, suggesting that induction of necroptosis could constitute a new approach for glioblastoma therapy.
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    ABSTRACT: Established as a potent anti-malaria medicine, artemisinin-based drugs have been suggested to have anti-tumour activity in some cancers. Although the mechanism is poorly understood, it has been suggested that artemisinin induces apoptotic cell death. Here, we show that the artemisinin analogue artesunate (ART) effectively induces cell death in RT4 schwannoma cells and human primary schwannoma cells. Interestingly, our data indicate for first time that the cell death induced by ART is largely dependent on necroptosis. ART appears to inhibit autophagy, which may also contribute to the cell death. Our data in human schwannoma cells show that ART can be combined with the autophagy inhibitor chloroquine (CQ) to potentiate the cell death. Thus, this study suggests that artemisinin-based drugs may be used in certain tumours where cells are necroptosis competent, and the drugs may act in synergy with apoptosis inducers or autophagy inhibitors to enhance their anti-tumour activity.
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