Racial disparities in colorectal cancer incidence by type 2 diabetes mellitus status.
ABSTRACT PURPOSE: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) prevalence has increased dramatically in the United States since the early 1970s. Though T2DM is known to be associated with colorectal cancer (CRC), information on racial differences in the relationship between T2DM and CRC is limited. METHODS: Using a retrospective cohort design, we compared the association between T2DM and CRC, including subsites of the colon, in African Americans (AAs) and European Americans (EAs) in South Carolina, a region with large racial disparities in rates of both diseases. A total of 91,836 individuals who were ≥30 years old on 1 January 1990 and had ≥12 months of South Carolina Medicaid eligibility between 1 January 1990 and 31 December 1995 were included in the analyses. Cancer data from 1996 to 2007 included information on anatomic subsite. RESULTS: Subjects who had T2DM (n = 6,006) were >50 % more likely to be diagnosed with colon cancer compared to those without T2DM (n = 85,681). The association between T2DM and colon cancer was higher in AAs [odds ratio (OR) = 1.72 (95 % confidence interval: 1.21, 2.46); n = 47,984] than among EAs (OR = 1.24; 0.73, 2.11; n = 43,703). Overall, individuals with T2DM were over twice as likely to be diagnosed with in situ or local colon cancer (OR = 2.12; 1.40, 3.22; n = 191) compared to those without T2DM, with a higher likelihood among AAs (OR = 2.49; 1.52, 4.09; n = 113). CONCLUSIONS: Results from a Medicaid population in a high-risk region of the United States showed an increased likelihood of CRC with T2DM and suggest a racial disparity that disfavors AAs and provides further impetus for efforts aimed at diabetes prevention in this group.
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ABSTRACT: Using data from the Women's Health Initiative (1993-2009; n = 158,833 participants, of whom 84.1% were white, 9.2% were black, 4.1% were Hispanic, and 2.6% were Asian), we compared all-cause, cardiovascular, and cancer mortality rates in white, black, Hispanic, and Asian postmenopausal women with and without diabetes. Cox proportional hazard models were used for the comparison from which hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals were computed. Within each racial/ethnic subgroup, women with diabetes had an approximately 2-3 times higher risk of all-cause, cardiovascular, and cancer mortality than did those without diabetes. However, the hazard ratios for mortality outcomes were not significantly different between racial/ethnic subgroups. Population attributable risk percentages (PARPs) take into account both the prevalence of diabetes and hazard ratios. For all-cause mortality, whites had the lowest PARP (11.1, 95% confidence interval (CI): 10.1, 12.1), followed by Asians (12.9, 95% CI: 4.7, 20.9), blacks (19.4, 95% CI: 15.0, 23.7), and Hispanics (23.2, 95% CI: 14.8, 31.2). To our knowledge, the present study is the first to show that hazard ratios for mortality outcomes were not significantly different between racial/ethnic subgroups when stratified by diabetes status. Because of the "amplifying" effect of diabetes prevalence, efforts to reduce racial/ethnic disparities in the rate of death from diabetes should focus on prevention of diabetes.American journal of epidemiology 09/2013; 178(10). DOI:10.1093/aje/kwt177 · 4.98 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: In a Columbia, South Carolina-based case-control study, we developed a healthy lifestyle index from five modifiable lifestyle factors (smoking, alcohol intake, physical activity, diet, and body mass index), and examined the association between this lifestyle index and the risk of colorectal adenomatous polyps (adenoma). Participants were recruited from a local endoscopy center and completed questionnaires related to lifestyle behaviors prior to colonoscopy. We scored responses on each of five lifestyle factors as unhealthy (0 point) or healthy (1 point) based on current evidence and recommendations. We added the five scores to produce a combined lifestyle index for each participant ranging from 0 (least healthy) to 5 (healthiest), which was dichotomized into unhealthy (0-2) and healthy (3-5) lifestyle scores. We used logistic regression to calculate odds ratios (OR) and 95 % confidence intervals (CI) for adenoma with adjustment for multiple covariates. We identified 47 adenoma cases and 91 controls. In the main analyses, there was a statistically nonsignificant inverse association between the dichotomous (OR 0.54; 95 % CI 0.22, 1.29) and continuous (OR 0.75; 95 % CI 0.51, 1.10) lifestyle index and adenoma. Odds of adenoma were significantly modified by the use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) (p interaction = 0.04). For participants who reported no use of NSAIDs, those in the healthy lifestyle category had a 72 % lower odds of adenoma as compared to those in the unhealthy category (OR 0.28; 95 % CI 0.08, 0.98), whereas a one-unit increase in the index significantly reduced odds of adenoma by 53 % (OR 0.47; 95 % CI 0.26, 0.88). Although these findings should be interpreted cautiously given our small sample size, our results suggest that higher scores from this index are associated with reduced odds of adenomas, especially in non-users of NSAIDs. Lifestyle interventions are required to test this approach as a strategy to prevent colorectal adenomatous polyps.The Journal of Primary Prevention 10/2014; 36(1). DOI:10.1007/s10935-014-0372-1 · 1.54 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: In recent years, colorectal cancer (CRC) screening rates have increased steadily in the USA, though racial and ethnic disparities persist. In a community-based randomized controlled trial, we investigated the effect of patient navigation on increasing CRC screening adherence among older African Americans. Participants in the Cancer Prevention and Treatment Demonstration were randomized to either the control group, receiving only printed educational materials (PEM), or the intervention arm where they were assigned a patient navigator in addition to PEM. Navigators assisted participants with identifying and overcoming screening barriers. Logistic regression analyses were used to assess the effect of patient navigation on CRC screening adherence. Up-to-date with screening was defined as self-reported receipt of colonoscopy/sigmoidoscopy in the previous 10 years or fecal occult blood testing (FOBT) in the year prior to the exit interview. Compared with controls, the intervention group was more likely to report being up-to-date with CRC screening at the exit interview (OR 1.55, 95 % CI 1.07-2.23), after adjusting for select demographics. When examining the screening modalities separately, the patient navigator increased screening for colonoscopy/sigmoidoscopy (OR 1.53, 95 % CI 1.07-2.19), but not FOBT screening. Analyses of moderation revealed stronger effects of navigation among participants 65-69 years and those with an adequate health literacy level. In a population of older African Americans adults, patient navigation was effective in increasing the likelihood of CRC screening. However, more intensive navigation may be necessary for adults over 70 years and individuals with low literacy levels.Cancer Causes and Control 12/2014; 26(2). DOI:10.1007/s10552-014-0505-0 · 2.96 Impact Factor