Dietary N-nitroso compounds, endogenous nitrosation, and the risk of esophageal and gastric cancer subtypes in the Netherlands Cohort Study
ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Dietary N-nitroso compounds and endogenous nitrosation are important carcinogenic factors, but human evidence of their role is scarce for esophageal cancer and inconsistent for gastric cancer. OBJECTIVE: We studied the relation between risks of esophageal and gastric cancer subtypes and dietary intake of N-nitrosodimethylamine, heme iron, nitrite, and nitrate in the Netherlands Cohort Study. DESIGN: A total of 120,852 men and women aged 55-69 y were recruited in 1986, and diet, based on a 150-item food-frequency questionnaire, and other risk factors were assessed. The cohort was followed for 16.3 y, and 110 esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC), 151 esophageal adenocarcinoma, 166 gastric cardia adenocarcinoma, and 497 gastric noncardia adenocarcinoma (GNCA) cases were analyzed along with 4032 subcohort members in a case-cohort analysis. RESULTS: Positive associations were observed between N-nitrosodimethylamine intake and ESCC risk (HR for 0.1-μg/d increase in intake: 1.15; 95% CI: 1.05, 1.25; P-trend = 0.01 based on tertiles of intake) and GNCA risk (1.06; 95% CI: 1.01, 1.10; P-trend = 0.09) in men. ESCC risk was associated with nitrite intake (HR for 0.1-mg/d increase: 1.19; 95% CI: 1.05, 1.36; P-trend = 0.06) and heme-iron intake (HR for 1-mg/d increase: 1.83; 95% CI: 0.98, 3.39; P-trend = 0.03). Among women, exposure levels were lower, and we found no convincing positive associations. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that N-nitroso compounds may influence the risk of ESCC in men, but there are no clear associations for other esophageal and gastric subtypes.
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ABSTRACT: Recent epidemiological studies show a positive association between cancer incidence and high intake of processed meat. N-nitrosamines (NA) in these products have been suggested as one potential causative factor. Most volatile NA (VNA) are classified as probable human carcinogens, whereas the carcinogenicity for the majority of the non-volatile NA (NVNA) remains to be elucidated. Danish adults (15-75 years) and children (4-6 years) consume 20 g and 16 g of processed meat per day (95th percentile), respectively. The consumption is primarily accounted for by sausages, salami, pork flank (spiced and boiled) and ham. This consumption results in an exposure to NVNA of 33 and 90 ng kg bw-1 day-1 for adults and children, respectively. The exposure to VNA is significantly lower amounting to 0.34 and 1.1 ng kg bw-1 day-1 for adults and children, respectively. Based on a BMDL10 of 29 µg kg bw-1 day-1 a MOE value ≥17000 was derived for the exposure to NA known to be carcinogenic (VNA including NSAR), indicating an exposure of low concern. The exposure to the NVNA is substantially higher and if found of toxicological significance the exposure may be of concern. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.Food and chemical toxicology: an international journal published for the British Industrial Biological Research Association 03/2015; 80. DOI:10.1016/j.fct.2015.03.008 · 2.61 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Esophageal adenocarcinoma (EA) incidence is among the most rapidly increasing of any cancer type in the U.S., and prognosis is poor. Prevalence of the potential precursor lesion, Barrett’s esophagus (BE), is also increasing. Candidates for safe and effective risk reduction strategies are needed, potentially including dietary components. In this qualitative review, we summarize recently published epidemiologic studies, in context of earlier work, on dietary intake and BE-EA outcomes. Potential cohort study/intervention trial candidates which could be increased to reduce BE-EA development include intake of: (1) fruits and vegetables; vegetables; fruit (EA only); (2) β-carotene and vitamins C and E; (3) folate (EA only); and (4) total fiber (EA only). Also, (5) red and processed meat intake could be targeted for dietary reduction/omission to reduce EA development. Few dietary constituents have been evaluated among EA patients to examine associations with mortality, thus interventions conducted among EA patients are premature.03/2014; 4(1):47-65. DOI:10.1007/s13668-014-0108-0
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ABSTRACT: The incidence of breast cancer (BC) in China has been rapidly increasing. We hypothesize that China-specific risk factors, both life-style and inherent ones, contribute to the problem.International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health 01/2015; 218(3). DOI:10.1016/j.ijheh.2015.01.001 · 3.28 Impact Factor