Genetic Studies of TYRP1 and SLC45A2 in Pakistani Patients with Nonsyndromic Oculocutaneous Albinism

1] Division of Pediatric Ophthalmology, Cincinnati Children's Hospital Research Foundation, Cincinnati, Ohio, USA [2] Institute of Molecular Biology and Biotechnology, Bahauddin Zakariya University, Multan, Pakistan.
Journal of Investigative Dermatology (Impact Factor: 7.22). 11/2012; 133(4). DOI: 10.1038/jid.2012.432
Source: PubMed
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Available from: Rehan S Shaikh, Oct 04, 2015
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    ABSTRACT: Most types of human oculocutaneous albinism (OCA) result from mutations in the gene for tyrosinase (OCA1) or the P protein (OCA2), although other types of OCA have been described but have not been mapped to specific loci. Melanocytes were cultured from an African-American with OCA, who exhibited the phenotype of Brown OCA, and his normal fraternal twin. Melanocytes cultured from the patient with OCA and the normal twin appeared brown versus black, respectively. Melanocytes from both the patient with OCA and the normal twin demonstrated equal amounts of NP-40-soluble melanin; however, melanocytes from the patient with OCA contained only 7% of the amount of insoluble melanin found from the normal twin. Tyrosinase- related protein-1 (TRP-1) was not detected in the OCA melanocytes by use of various anti-TRP-1 probes. Furthermore, transcripts for TRP-1 were absent in cultured OCA melanocytes. The affected twin was homozygous for a single-bp deletion in exon 6, removing an A in codon 368 and leading to a premature stop at codon 384. Tyrosine hydroxylase activity of the OCA melanocytes was comparable to controls when assayed in cell lysates but was only 30% of controls when assayed in intact cells. We conclude that this mutation of the human TRP-1 gene affects its interaction with tyrosinase, resulting in dysregulation of tyrosinase activity, promotes the synthesis of brown versus black melanin, and is responsible for a third genetic type of OCA in humans, which we classify as "OCA3."
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    ABSTRACT: Oculocutaneous albinism (OCA) is the most common autosomal recessive disorder among southern African Blacks. There are three forms that account for almost all OCA types in this region. Tyrosinase-positive OCA (OCA2), which is the most common, affects approximately 1/3,900 newborns and has a carrier frequency of approximately 1/33. It is caused by mutations in the P gene on chromosome 15. Brown OCA (BOCA) and rufous OCA (ROCA) account for the majority of the remaining phenotypes. The prevalence of BOCA is unknown, but for ROCA it is approximately 1/8,500. Linkage analysis performed on nine ROCA families showed that ROCA was linked to an intragenic marker at the TYRP1 locus (maximum LOD score = 3.80 at straight theta=.00). Mutation analysis of 19 unrelated ROCA individuals revealed a nonsense mutation at codon 166 (S166X) in 17 (45%) of 38 ROCA chromosomes, and a second mutation (368delA) was found in an additional 19 (50%) of 38 chromosomes; mutations were not identified in the remaining 2 ROCA chromosomes. In one family, two siblings with a phenotypically unclassified form of albinism were found to be compound heterozygotes for mutations (S166X/368delA) at the TYRP1 locus and were heterozygous for a common 2.7-kb deletion in the P gene. These findings have highlighted the influence of genetic background on phenotype, in which the genotype at one locus can be influenced by the genotype at a second locus, leading to a modified phenotype. ROCA, which in southern African Blacks is caused by mutations in the TYRP1 gene, therefore should be referred to as "OCA3," since this is the third locus that has been shown to cause an OCA phenotype in humans.
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    ABSTRACT: Albinism, caused by a deficiency of melanin pigment in the skin, hair, and eye (oculocutaneous albinism [OCA]), or primarily in the eye (ocular albinism [OA]), results from mutations in genes involved in the biosynthesis of melanin pigment. The lack of melanin pigment in the developing eye leads to fovea hypoplasia and abnormal routing of the optic nerves. These changes are responsible for the nystagmus, strabismus, and reduced visual acuity common to all types of albinism. Mutations in six genes have been reported to be responsible for different types of oculocutaneous and ocular albinism, including the tyrosinase gene (TYR) and OCA1 (MIM# 203100), the OCA2 gene and OCA2 (MIM# 203200), the tyrosinase-related protein-1 gene (TYRP1) and OCA3 (MIM# 203290), the HPS gene and Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome (MIM# 203300), the CHS gene (CHS1), and Chediak-Higashi syndrome (MIM# 214500), and the X-linked ocular albinism gene and OA1 (MIM#300500). The function of only two of the gene products is known tyrosinase and tyrosinase-related protein-1 both of which are enzymes in the melanin biosynthetic pathway. Continued mutational analysis coupled with function/structure studies should aid our understanding of the function of the remaining genes and their role in albinism. Mutation and polymorphism data on these genes are available from the International Albinism Center Albinism Database web site (
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