Human Papillomavirus Vaccines Six Years After Approval.
ABSTRACT Human papillomavirus vaccines were developed beginning in the early 1990s. Two similar vaccines were approved in 2006 and 2009 following extensive clinical testing. Both vaccines prevent HPV infection. Implementation of these vaccines is the next challenge. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Medicine Volume 64 is January 07, 2013. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/catalog/pubdates.aspx for revised estimates.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is associated with cervical cancer, but whether it is involved in colorectal carcinogenesis is controversial. We conducted a meta-analysis to evaluate the association between HPV and colorectal adenocarcinoma. A search of the MEDLINE database was performed using the MESH terms "HPV", "human papillomavirus", and "colon cancer", "rectal cancer", "colorectal cancer". The prevalence of HPV infection in colorectal cancer was estimated by pooling data from 16 studies (involving 1436 patients) published up to July 2012, taking into consideration methodological heterogeneity between studies. The association of HPV and colorectal cancer risk was estimated from case-control studies. HPV prevalence was 31.9% (95% CI:19.3% to 47.9%). It was lowest in Europe (14.1%, 95% CI: 4.9%-34.1%) and highest in South America (60.8%, 95% CI = 42.7%-76.4%). Eight studies presented results of HPV typing in 302 HPV-positive colorectal carcinomas. HPV18 was the virus more frequently found in Asia 73.34% (95% CI 44.9 -90.7%) and Europe, (47.3% [95% CI 34.5 - 60.4]) of colorectal cancer cases. In contrast, HPV16 was the virus more prevalent in tumours from South America (58.3% [95%CI 45.5 -69.9%]). The analysis of five case-control studies showed AN increase in colorectal carcinoma risk with HPV positivity (OR 10.04 [95% CI 3.7 - 27.5]). The results provide quantitative evidence for an association between HPV infection and colorectal cancer risk. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.Colorectal Disease 04/2013; 15(8). DOI:10.1111/codi.12257 · 2.02 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: A review of cohort and case-control studies that attempt to quantify the proportion of cancer cases diagnosed in the United States and throughout the world that may be attributed to biologic or infectious agents.Methods Epidemiologic studies published primarily since the year 2000 are summarized that estimate population attributable fractions (PAFs) based on consensus estimates of relative risk and of the exposure prevalence to putative oncogenic infectious agents in representative populations.ResultsThe proportion of incident cancers attributable to infectious agents diagnosed in low-and middle-income countries, comprising more than 80% of the world`s population, has been estimated to vary from 20% to 30%, in contrast to a range of ≤ 5% to 10 % in the USA and other highly industrialized populations. More than 90% of the global cancer cases attributed to infectious agents have been caused by hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), human papillomaviruses (HPVs), and the gram-negative bacterium, Helicobacter pylori.Conclusions Epidemiologic and pathologic studies that utilize molecular diagnostic probes and immunologic and biochemical assays have described the substantial impact of infectious agents on global cancer incidence. These compelling observations have stimulated the development of effective HBV and HPV vaccines, and the rationale for eradication of Helicobacter pylori.Annals of Epidemiology 11/2014; 25(3). DOI:10.1016/j.annepidem.2014.11.016 · 2.15 Impact Factor