Current Staging Systems for Pancreatic Cancer
ABSTRACT Accurate pretreatment staging of pancreatic cancer is a crucial initial step in the development of a stage-specific treatment plan, either on- or off-protocol for any patient with pancreatic cancer. Importantly, current American Joint Committee on Cancer staging utilizes the maximal information available; if surgery has been performed, then pathological information from the resected specimen will provide additional information for both T and N staging. If surgery has not been performed, then staging is based on information from available cross-sectional imaging studies. Although American Joint Committee on Cancer staging was modified in the sixth edition to reflect the survival difference between patients with operable/resectable versus nonoperable/unresectable disease, the precise definitions of resectability continue to evolve. It is essential for clinicians of different specialties to understand the definitions of resectability to facilitate optimal patient care and to allow for accurate interpretation of the literature. This review focuses on important aspects of the pretreatment assessment of patients with particular attention to definitions of resectability. Computed tomography has become the optimal imaging modality for pancreatic cancer staging, but other adjunct studies, including endoscopic ultrasound and laparoscopy, may provide additional staging information especially in circumstances where computed tomography technology is limited. In addition, the process of a standardized pathological review is summarized, with emphasis on assessment of the superior mesenteric artery margin and the definitions of R0, R1, and R2. Finally, the prognostic importance of key components of the pathological report such as lymph node status, lymph node ratio, and treatment effect is reviewed.
- SourceAvailable from: link.springer.comAnnals of Surgical Oncology 08/2013; 20(12). DOI:10.1245/s10434-013-3165-5 · 3.94 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Complete tumor resection is still the only potentially curative therapy option for patients with ductal adenocarcinoma of the pancreas. Surgical exploration is the gold standard for the determination of tumor resectability. Radiological resectability assessment is of great importance because many clearly unresectable cases can be identified preoperatively and it became essential for surgical planning. The evolving surgical and radiological techniques demand a continuous reappraisal of radiological criteria in resectability assessment. In the following, the criteria for resection planning are described along with surgical management and the role of radiology in some innovative surgical concepts is explained.Citation Format:RöFo - Fortschritte auf dem Gebiet der R 09/2013; 186(1). DOI:10.1055/s-0033-1350190 · 1.96 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Venous resection may be required to achieve complete resection of pancreatic cancers. We assessed the ability of radiographic criteria to predict the need for superior mesenteric-portal vein (SMV-PV) resection and the presence of histologic vein invasion. All patients who underwent pancreaticoduodenectomy from 2004 to 2011 at the authors' institution were identified. Preoperative pancreatic protocol CT images were re-reviewed to characterize the extent of tumor-vein circumferential interface (TVI) as demonstrating no interface, ≤180° of vessel circumference, >180° of vessel circumference, or occlusion. Findings were correlated with the need for venous resection, histologic venous invasion, and survival. A total of 254 patients underwent pancreaticoduodenectomy and met inclusion criteria; 98 (39.6 %) required SMV-PV resection. In our cohort, 76.4 % of patients received neoadjuvant chemoradiation. The TVI classification system predicted with fair accuracy both the need for SMV-PV resection at the time of surgery and histologic invasion of the vein. In particular, 89.5 % of patients with TVI >180° or occlusion required SMV-PV resection. Of those, 82.4 % had documented histologic SMV-PV invasion. TVI ≤180° was associated with favorable overall survival compared to a greater circumferential interface. A tomographic classification of the tumor-SMV-PV interface can predict the need for venous resection, pathologic venous involvement, and survival. To assist in treatment planning, a standardized assessment of this anatomic relationship should be routinely performed.Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery 10/2013; 18(2). DOI:10.1007/s11605-013-2374-3 · 2.39 Impact Factor