Esthetic Enhancements in Upper Blepharoplasty

Center for Facial Cosmetic Surgery, University of Michigan Department of Otolaryngology, 19900 Haggerty Road, Suite 103, Livonia, MI 48152, USA. Electronic address: .
Clinics in plastic surgery (Impact Factor: 0.91). 01/2013; 40(1):139-46. DOI: 10.1016/j.cps.2012.08.008
Source: PubMed


Traditional upper blepharoplasty typically involves resection of excess upper eyelid skin and muscle with or without fat excision. Well-established concepts in periorbital aging have been challenged by newer morphologic and histologic studies that have characterized the changes that occur in the various periorbital soft tissue components. Several modified or adjunctive techniques have recently emerged to improve esthetic outcomes in upper blepharoplasty. The authors review surgical technique in detail: nasal fat repositioning, orbicularis oculi preservation, increasing lateral upper eyelid fullness, lacrimal gland resuspension, internal brow elevation, and glabellar myectomy, along with complications and aftercare involved with procedures.

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    • "In blepharoplasty for the aging, the most important objective is to correct the sagging of the upper eyelid skin, and in East Asians, this may be achieved by excision of the redundant skin either with or without creating a double eyelid fold. In the elderly, the skin is usually thin, and subcutaneous fat and retro-orbicularis oculi fat (ROOF) are sparse, so minimal excision of the soft tissues should be performed [1,2]. This also has an effect on the recovery period, which should be kept as short as possible to allow for rapid adjustment. "
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    ABSTRACT: In performing upper blepharoplasty in the elderly, looking younger and keeping the eyelids harmonious with the rest of the face have to be achieved at the same time. The most important goal in upper blepharoplasty for aging is correcting the drooping upper eyelid skin, and in this process, the surgeon may or may not create a double eyelid fold. The pros and cons have to be fully discussed with the patient, but the author personally prefers creating a double fold unless the patient refuses, because it is efficient in correcting and preventing further drooping of the skin. In most patients, the brow is elevated to compensate for the drooping eyelid, and when the drooping is corrected, brow ptosis may ensue. The surgeon has to prepare for these consequences before performing the procedure, and estimate the exact amount of skin to be excised. In the elderly, the skin and the orbicularis oculi muscle is thin, with a decreased amount of subcutaneous fat and retro-orbicularis oculi fat, and in most cases, excision of the skin alone is enough to correct the deformity. Removing large portions of soft tissue may also prolong the recovery period. Unlike younger patients, the lower skin flap should not be stretched too much in the elderly, as it may create an aggressive looking appearance. A few wrinkles in the lower flap should remain untouched to create a natural look. In this article, the author's own methods of performing an aging blepharoplasty are described specifically, with a step-by-step guide and surgical tips.
    Archives of Plastic Surgery 09/2013; 40(5):486-491. DOI:10.5999/aps.2013.40.5.486
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    ABSTRACT: The goal of this article is to enhance the surgical precision and accuracy of surgeons performing upper and lower eyelid blepharoplasty. The most common blepharoplasty complications are described and how to avoid them is discussed in detail. Complications range from mild to severe and for each, preoperative measures to prevent, perioperative measures to avoid, and postoperative measures to minimize complications are detailed. After reading this article the surgeon should have a greater understanding of blepharoplasty complications and how to best manage and avoid them.
    Facial plastic surgery clinics of North America 11/2013; 21(4):625-37. DOI:10.1016/j.fsc.2013.08.002 · 0.72 Impact Factor