Spatial variation of particle number and mass over four European cities
ABSTRACT The number of ultrafine particles may be a more health relevant characteristic of ambient particulate matter than the conventionally measured mass. Epidemiological time series studies typically use a central site to characterize human exposure to outdoor air pollution. There is currently very limited information how well measurements at a central site reflect temporal and spatial variation across an urban area for particle number concentrations (PNC).
The main objective of the study was to assess the spatial variation of PNC compared to the mass concentration of particles with diameter less than 10 or 2.5 μm (PM10 and PM2.5).
Continuous measurements of PM10, PM2.5, PNC and soot concentrations were conducted at a central site during October 2002–March 2004 in four cities spread over Europe (Amsterdam, Athens, Birmingham and Helsinki). The same measurements were conducted directly outside 152 homes spread over the metropolitan areas. Each home was monitored during 1 week. We assessed the temporal correlation and the variability of absolute concentrations.
For all particle indices, including particle number, temporal correlation of 24-h average concentrations was high. The median correlation for PNC per city ranged between 0.67 and 0.76. For PM2.5 median correlation ranged between 0.79 and 0.98. The median correlation for hourly average PNC was lower (range 0.56–0.66). Absolute concentration levels varied substantially more within cities for PNC and coarse particles than for PM2.5. Measurements at the central site reflected the temporal variation of 24-h average concentrations for all particle indices at the selected homes across the urban area. A central site could not assess absolute concentrations across the urban areas for particle number.