Correlation between enzymes inhibitory effects and antioxidant activities of standardized fractions of methanolic extract obtained from Ficus deltoidea leaves

AFRICAN JOURNAL OF BIOTECHNOLOGY (Impact Factor: 0.57). 12/2011; 10(67):15184-15194. DOI: 10.5897/AJB11.1365


Recently, there has been increasing interest in Ficus deltoidea (Moracea) due to its chemical composition and the potential health benefits. The leaves of the plant have been suggested to have potential antidiabetic effects. Inhibition of carbohydrate-hydrolysing enzymes, such as -glucosidase and -amylase is one of the therapeutic approaches to control postprandial hyperglycemia. In this study, enzymes inhibitory effect and antioxidant properties of different fractions of methanolic extract obtained from F. deltoidea leaves was evaluated. Further, the possible relationship between pharmacological properties and phytochemical content of fractions was investigated. The n-butanol fraction showed significant -glucosidase and -amylase inhibitory effects (IC 50 values 15.1 and 39.42 µg/ml, respectively) along with the remarkable antioxidant activity when compared to the other fractions. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) chemical profiling of the n-butanol fraction revealed that the contents of isovitexin (24.63 mg/g) and vitexin (8.3 mg/g) were found to be significantly higher than the other fractions. These results indicate that F. deltoidea could be the potential source of promising anti-diabetic drug.

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    • "(Moraceae) is a native wild evergreen shrub in Malaysia and widely distributed in Southeast Asian countries. It is locally known as Emas Cotek and Mas Cotek [10]. Decoction of F. deltoidea leaves was extensively utilized in folk medicine to decrease symptom of diabetes, hyperlipidemia and hypertension [11]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background Recently, there has been increasing interest in Ficus deltoidea Jack. (Moraceae) due to its chemical composition and the potential health benefits. The present study was undertaken to investigate the effect of extracts of F. deltoidea leaves on diabetes. Methods The petroleum ether, chloroform and methanol extracts of F. deltoidea were prepared and subjected to standardization using preliminary phytochemical and HPLC analysis. Dose selection was made on the basis of acute oral toxicity study (50–5000 mg/kg b. w.) as per OECD guidelines. Diabetes mellitus was induced with streptozotocin and rats found diabetic were orally administered with the extract (250, 500 and 1000 mg/kg) for 14 days. Levels of blood glucose and insulin were measured in control as well as diabetic rats on 0, 7 and 14th day. In addition, glucose metabolism regulating gene expression was assessed using RT-PCR. Results HPLC analysis revealed that the methanol extract is enriched with C-glycosylflavones particularly, vitexin and isovitexin. In oral glucose tolerance test, oral administration of the methanol extract increased the glucose tolerance. The methanol extract showed significant (P < 0.01) antidiabetic activity. The extract treatment caused significant reduction (p < 0.01) in elevated fasting blood glucose level in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. The streptozotocin-related weight loss in rats was noticeably reversed by the extract treatment. Finally, RT-PCR analysis revealed a novel mechanisms for the anti-diabetic action of methanol extract of F. deltoidea. The extract exerted its effect via an increase of insulin secretion which impeded the hepatic glucose production, via down-regulation of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase and glucose-6-phosphatase genes expression on one hand, and up-regulation of hepatic GK and PPARγ genes expression on the other hand. The extract caused an increased expression of GLUT-4 gene expression in skeletal muscles which leads to normalize the hyperglycemia. The extract also nullified the toxic effects of streptozitocin by blocking its entry into the islet β-cells through reducing the expression of GLUT-2 gene. Conclusion It can be concluded that, F. deltoidea could potentially inhibits the streptozitocin-induced hyperglycemia in rats. Further the herb can be utilized as useful remedy for alleviation of diabetes complications.
    BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 07/2014; 14(1):220. DOI:10.1186/1472-6882-14-220 · 2.02 Impact Factor
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    • "Another study by Farsi et al. [13] reported that the n-butanol fraction from the leaves of F. deltoidea showed visible α-glucosidase and α-amylase inhibitory effects to control postprandial hyperglycemia. A different study conducted by Adam et al. [14] to evaluate the ethanolic effect of F. deltoidea on glucose levels in normal rats showed that all doses reduced fasting blood glucose, especially after 6 hours of administration. "
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    ABSTRACT: Ficus deltoidea Jack (Moraceae) has had a long history of use in traditional medicine among the Malays to alleviate and heal ailments such as sores, wounds, and rheumatism and as an after-birth tonic and an antidiabetic drug. Modern pharmacological studies demonstrated that this plant has a wide variety of beneficial attributes for human health. Despite its importance, a review of this species has not been published in the scientific literature to date. Here, we review and summarize the historic and current literature concerning the botany, traditional uses, phytochemistry, pharmacological effects, and toxicity of this wonder plant. This summary could be beneficial for future research aiming to exploit the therapeutic potential of this useful, medicinal species.
    Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine 03/2014; 2014:902734. DOI:10.1155/2014/902734 · 1.88 Impact Factor
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    • "Ficus deltoidea, a plant belonging to the Moraceae family or locally known as “Mas Cotek” is a new potential medicinal plant in Malaysia. Little is known about the chemical constituents of F. deltoidea but some of the compounds claimed to be present in F. deltoidea are the flavonoids isovitexin, vitexin [19,20], proanthocyanidins, flavan-3-ol monomers and flavones glycosides [21]. Recently, a study by Zainah and collegues proposed that the aqueous extract of F. deltoidea leaves might contain water-soluble insulin-secreting constituents with better insulin secretion activity than a well-known hypoglycaemic agent, glibenclamide [22]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background Diabetes is a serious metabolic disorder affecting the metabolism of carbohydrate, protein and fat. A number of studies have shown that diabetes mellitus is associated with oxidative stress, leading to an increased production of reactive oxygen species. Ficus deltoidea is traditionally used in Malaysia for regulating blood sugar, blood pressure and cholesterol levels. The use of F. deltoidea as an alternative medicinal herb is increasingly gaining popularity with the sale of F. deltoidea tea bags and capsules in the local market. The present study was undertaken to investigate the antidiabetic and antioxidant activities of the fruits from different varieties of F. deltoidea, employing in vitro methods. Method Two fruit varieties of F. deltoidea (var. angustifolia (SF) and var. kunstleri (BF)) were extracted separately using double-distilled water. The resulting aqueous extracts were partitioned using ethyl acetate to obtain the ethyl acetate and water fractions. The crude aqueous extracts and the corresponding fractions were evaluated for their phenolic, flavonoid, sugar and protein contents. Protein profiling of the extracts and fractions were also carried out by means of SDS-PAGE and SELDI-TOF MS. Antidiabetic activities were assessed based on the ability of the samples to inhibit yeast and mammalian α-glucosidase as well as α-amylase. Antioxidant capacities were examined by measuring the ability of the samples to reduce ferric ions and to scavenge DPPH, superoxide anion, ABTS and nitric oxide radicals. Results The crude extracts and fractions of SF and BF inhibited both yeast and rat intestinal α-glucosidases in a dose-dependent manner, but did not inhibit porcine pancreatic α-amylase. The water fraction of BF showed the highest percentage of α-glucosidase inhibition while having the highest amount of protein (73.33 ± 4.99 μg/mg fraction). All the extracts and fractions exhibited antioxidant activities, with SF crude extract showing the highest antioxidant activity and phenolic content (121.62 ± 4.86 mg/g extract). Fractionation of the crude extracts resulted in loss of antioxidant activities. There was no positive correlation between phenolic and flavonoid content with α-glucosidase inhibitory activities. However, phenolic content correlated well with antioxidant activities of the crude extracts but not with the fractions. Conclusions The antioxidant activities of the fruits of F. deltoidea might be asserted by the phenolic content but other polar plant components were possibly involved in the antidiabetic properties. The study of these compounds having both antihyperglycemic and antioxidant activities may provide a new approach in the treatment of diabetes mellitus.
    BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 05/2013; 13(1):118. DOI:10.1186/1472-6882-13-118 · 2.02 Impact Factor
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