Correlation between enzymes inhibitory effects and antioxidant activities of standardized fractions of methanolic extract obtained from Ficus deltoidea leaves

AFRICAN JOURNAL OF BIOTECHNOLOGY (Impact Factor: 0.57). 12/2011; 10:15184-15194. DOI: 10.5897/AJB11.1365

ABSTRACT Recently, there has been increasing interest in Ficus deltoidea (Moracea) due to its chemical composition and the potential health benefits. The leaves of the plant have been suggested to have potential antidiabetic effects. Inhibition of carbohydrate-hydrolysing enzymes, such as -glucosidase and -amylase is one of the therapeutic approaches to control postprandial hyperglycemia. In this study, enzymes inhibitory effect and antioxidant properties of different fractions of methanolic extract obtained from F. deltoidea leaves was evaluated. Further, the possible relationship between pharmacological properties and phytochemical content of fractions was investigated. The n-butanol fraction showed significant -glucosidase and -amylase inhibitory effects (IC 50 values 15.1 and 39.42 µg/ml, respectively) along with the remarkable antioxidant activity when compared to the other fractions. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) chemical profiling of the n-butanol fraction revealed that the contents of isovitexin (24.63 mg/g) and vitexin (8.3 mg/g) were found to be significantly higher than the other fractions. These results indicate that F. deltoidea could be the potential source of promising anti-diabetic drug.

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    ABSTRACT: Ficus deltoidea leaves have been used in traditional medicine in Southeast Asia to treat diabetes, inflammation, diarrhea, and infections. The present study was conducted to assess the genotoxicity and acute and subchronic toxicity of a standardized methanol extract of F. deltoidea leaves. Sprague Dawley rats were orally treated with five different single doses of the extract and screened for signs of toxicity for two weeks after administration. In the subchronic study, three different doses of the extract were administered for 28 days. Mortality, clinical signs, body weight changes, hematological and biochemical parameters, gross findings, organ weights, and histological parameters were monitored during the study. Genotoxicity was assessed using the Ames test with the TA98 and TA100 Salmonella typhimurium strains. Phytochemical standardization was performed using a colorimeter and high-performance liquid chromatography. Heavy metal detection was performed using an atomic absorption spectrometer. The acute toxicity study showed that the LD50 of the extract was greater than 5000 mg/kg. In the subchronic toxicity study, there were no significant adverse effects on food consumption, body weight, organ weights, mortality, clinical chemistry, hematology, gross pathology, or histopathology. However, a dose-dependent increase in the serum urea level was observed. The Ames test revealed that the extract did not have any potential to induce gene mutations in S. typhimurium, either in the presence or absence of S9 activation. Phytochemical analysis of the extract revealed high contents of phenolics, flavonoids, and tannins. High-performance liquid chromatography analysis revealed high levels of vitexin and isovitexin in the extract, and the levels of heavy metals were below the toxic levels. The no-observed adverse effect level of F. deltoidea in rats was determined to be 2500 mg/kg.
    Clinics (São Paulo, Brazil) 06/2013; 68(6). DOI:10.6061/clinics/2013(06)23 · 1.42 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background Recently, there has been increasing interest in Ficus deltoidea Jack. (Moraceae) due to its chemical composition and the potential health benefits. The present study was undertaken to investigate the effect of extracts of F. deltoidea leaves on diabetes. Methods The petroleum ether, chloroform and methanol extracts of F. deltoidea were prepared and subjected to standardization using preliminary phytochemical and HPLC analysis. Dose selection was made on the basis of acute oral toxicity study (50–5000 mg/kg b. w.) as per OECD guidelines. Diabetes mellitus was induced with streptozotocin and rats found diabetic were orally administered with the extract (250, 500 and 1000 mg/kg) for 14 days. Levels of blood glucose and insulin were measured in control as well as diabetic rats on 0, 7 and 14th day. In addition, glucose metabolism regulating gene expression was assessed using RT-PCR. Results HPLC analysis revealed that the methanol extract is enriched with C-glycosylflavones particularly, vitexin and isovitexin. In oral glucose tolerance test, oral administration of the methanol extract increased the glucose tolerance. The methanol extract showed significant (P < 0.01) antidiabetic activity. The extract treatment caused significant reduction (p < 0.01) in elevated fasting blood glucose level in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. The streptozotocin-related weight loss in rats was noticeably reversed by the extract treatment. Finally, RT-PCR analysis revealed a novel mechanisms for the anti-diabetic action of methanol extract of F. deltoidea. The extract exerted its effect via an increase of insulin secretion which impeded the hepatic glucose production, via down-regulation of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase and glucose-6-phosphatase genes expression on one hand, and up-regulation of hepatic GK and PPARγ genes expression on the other hand. The extract caused an increased expression of GLUT-4 gene expression in skeletal muscles which leads to normalize the hyperglycemia. The extract also nullified the toxic effects of streptozitocin by blocking its entry into the islet β-cells through reducing the expression of GLUT-2 gene. Conclusion It can be concluded that, F. deltoidea could potentially inhibits the streptozitocin-induced hyperglycemia in rats. Further the herb can be utilized as useful remedy for alleviation of diabetes complications.
    BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 07/2014; 14(1):220. DOI:10.1186/1472-6882-14-220 · 1.88 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: ABSTRACT Objective: The aims of this study were to identify and evaluate the chemical markers of Ficus deltoidea Jack (FD) varieties namely var. deltoidea, var. trengganuensis, var. kunstleri, var. motleyana, var. intermedia, var. borneensis, var. bilobata and var. angustifolia by high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC) and to discriminate between the varieties based on Fourier transform infra-red (FTIR) data. Methods: Methanol extracts of eight varieties and water extracts of five varieties were subjected to HPTLC and FTIR fingerprinting analysis. Quantification of markers (vitexin and isovitexin) was performed by HPTLC. Cluster analysis of principal component analysis (PCA) and hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) was employed to discriminate between the varieties based on their FTIR data. Results: Two markers, vitexin and isovitexin, were found in all of the varieties, but their contents were varied in the different samples. Cluster analysis (PCA and HCA) was employed to discriminate between the varieties based on their FTIR data. Clear separation between the methanol extracts of the varieties was observed, whereas the discrimination of the water extracts of the varieties showed some disparities. Conclusion: The findings indicate that HPTLC combined with FTIR coupled with chemometric analysis is a reliable analytical tool for the identification and discrimination of FD varieties. Keywords: Ficus deltoidea Jack, High performance thin layer chromatography, Fourier transform infra-red profiling, Vitexin, Isovitexin.


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May 16, 2014