Dengue virus: isolation, propagation, quantification, and storage.
ABSTRACT Dengue is a disease caused by infection with one of the four dengue virus serotypes (DENV-1, -2, -3, and -4). The virus is transmitted to humans by Aedes sp. mosquitoes. This enveloped virus contains a positive single-stranded RNA genome. Clinical manifestations of dengue can have a wide range of outcomes varying from a mild febrile illness to a life-threatening condition. New techniques have largely replaced the use of DENV isolation in disease diagnosis. However, virus isolation still serves as the gold standard for detection and serotyping of DENV and is common practice in research and reference laboratories where clinical isolates of the virus are characterized and sequenced, or used for a variety of research experiments. Isolation of DENV from clinical samples can be achieved in mammalian and mosquito cells or by inoculation of mosquitoes. The experimental methods presented here describe the most common procedures used for the isolation, serotyping, propagation, and quantification of DENV. Curr. Protoc. Microbiol. 27:15D.2.1-15D.2.24. © 2012 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
Full-textDOI: · Available from: Gilberto A. Santiago, Aug 13, 2015
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ABSTRACT: The natural co-infection with dengue virus can occur in highly endemic areas where different serotypes have been observed for many years. We report one case of DENV-1/DENV-4 co-infection in human serum detected by molecular tests. Phylogenetic analysis of the sequences obtained indicated the presence of genotype V and II for DENV-1 and DENV-4, respectively.Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de São Paulo 08/2013; 55(4):275-281. DOI:10.1590/S0036-46652013000400009 · 0.91 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The "standard" methods of isolating dengue virus (DENV) utilize the mosquito cell line C6/36, monkey kidney LLC-MK2 cells, Vero cells, or baby hamster kidney (BHK-21) cells. However, these cells lines lack a particular DENV receptor, known as dendritic cell-specific ICAM-3-grabbing non-integrin (DC-SIGN), which is expressed on immature dendritic cells and monocytes/macrophages. This may result in less efficient virus isolation and propagation. The present study used a lentivirus vector to establish Vero and BHK-21 cell lines (Vero-DC and BHK-DC) that express human DC-SIGN stably. Five DENV strains, each passaged several times in C6/36 cells, replicated more efficiently in Vero-DC and BHK-DC than in the parental Vero or BHK-21 cells. Vero/Vero-DC and Vero/Vero-DC were used to isolate virus from buffy coats and plasma samples derived from 13 patients infected with DENV. Most of the viruses showed increased production in cell lines expressing DC-SIGN. However, the isolation rate was lower (15.4-46.2%) than that from C6/36 cells (84.6%). Interestingly, when the viruses were isolated in C6/36 cells prior to infecting Vero/Vero-DC and BHK-21/BHK-DC, the rate of virus production increased markedly, reaching levels higher than those initially achieved in C6/36 cells. These data suggest that Vero-DC and BHK-DC could be useful tools for virus propagation, and that human specimens may contain a factor that interferes with virus growth in mammalian cells.Journal of Virological Methods 09/2014; 209. DOI:10.1016/j.jviromet.2014.08.023 · 1.88 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: In vitro studies have shown that dengue virus (DENV) can thwart the actions of interferon (IFN)-α/β and prevent the development of an antiviral state in infected cells. Clinical studies looking at gene expression in patients with severe dengue show a reduced expression of interferon stimulated genes compared to patients with dengue fever. Interestingly, there are conflicting reports as to the ability of DENV or other flaviviruses to inhibit IFN-α/β signaling. In order to determine the relative inhibition of IFN-α/β signaling by DENVs, a method combining flow cytometry and a four-parameter logistic regression model was established. A representative isolate from DENV-1, -3 and -4 and seventeen representative isolates encompassing all DENV-2 genotypes were evaluated. All of the DENVs evaluated in this study were capable of inhibiting IFN-α/β signaling. Most of the strains were able to inhibit IFN-α/β to a degree similar to DENV strain 16681; however, DENV-2 sylvatic strains demonstrated an increased inhibition of phosphorylated signal transducer and activator of transcription (pSTAT1). Surprisingly, we were unable to observe inhibition of pSTAT1 by DENV-2 sylvatic strains or the Asian strain 16681 in non-human primate (NHP) cell lines. Analysis in primary Rhesus macaque dendritic cells suggests that DENVs are capable of inhibiting IFN signaling in these cells. However, contrary to human dendritic cells, production of IFN-α was detected in the supernatant of DENV-infected Rhesus macaque dendritic cells. The ability of DENVs to inhibit IFN-α/β signaling is conserved. Although some variation in the inhibition was observed, the moderate differences may be difficult to correlate with clinical outcomes. DENVs were unable to inhibit pSTAT1 in NHP cell lines, but their ability to inhibit pSTAT1 in primary Rhesus macaque dendritic cells suggests that this may be a cell specific phenomena or due to the transformed nature of the cell lines.PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases 03/2015; 9(3):e0003468. DOI:10.1371/journal.pntd.0003468 · 4.49 Impact Factor