Zic3 is required in the extra-cardiac perinodal region of the lateral plate mesoderm for leftright patterning and heart development

Department of Molecular and Human Genetics, Baylor College of Medicine, One Baylor Plaza, Houston, TX 77030, USA.
Human Molecular Genetics (Impact Factor: 6.39). 11/2012; 22(5):879–889. DOI: 10.1093/hmg/dds494
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Mutations in ZIC3 cause human X-linked heterotaxy and isolated cardiovascular malformations. A mouse model with targeted deletion of Zic3 demonstrates an early role for Zic3 in gastrulation, CNS, cardiac, and left-right axial development. The observation of multiple malformations in Zic3(null) mice and the relatively broad expression pattern of Zic3 suggest its important roles in multiple developmental processes. Here, we report that Zic3 is primarily required in epiblast derivatives to affect left-right patterning and its expression in epiblast is necessary for proper transcriptional control of embryonic cardiac development. However, cardiac malformations in Zic3 deficiency occur not because Zic3 is intrinsically required in the heart but rather because it functions early in the establishment of left-right body axis. In addition, we provide evidence supporting a role for Zic3 specifically in the perinodal region of the posterior lateral plate mesoderm (LPM) for the establishment of laterality. These data delineate the spatial requirement of Zic3 during left-right patterning in the mammalian embryo, and provide basis for further understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying the complex interaction of Zic3 with signaling pathways involved in the early establishment of laterality.

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Available from: Zhengxin Kyle Jiang, Sep 28, 2015
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    ABSTRACT: Background Mutations in ZIC3 cause X-linked heterotaxy and isolated cardiovascular malformations. Recent data suggest a potential cell-autonomous role for Zic3 in myocardium via regulation of Nppa and Tbx5. We sought to develop a hypomorphic Zic3 mouse to model human heterotaxy and investigate developmental mechanisms underlying variability in cardiac phenotypes. Methods Zic3 hypomorphic mice were created by targeted insertion of a neomycin cassette and investigated by gross, histologic, and molecular methods Results Low level Zic3 expression is sufficient for partial rescue of viability as compared to Zic3 null mice. Concordance of early left-right molecular marker abnormalities and later anatomic abnormalities suggests the primary effect of Zic3 in heart development occurs during left-right patterning. Cardiac specific gene expression of Nppa (ANF) and Tbx5 marked the proper morphological locations in the heart regardless of looping abnormalities. Conclusions Zic3 hypomorphic mice are a useful model to investigate the variable cardiac defects resulting from a single genetic defect. Low level Zic3 expression rescues the left pulmonary isomerism identified in Zic3 null embryos. Our data do not support a direct role for Zic3 in the myocardium via regulation of Nppa and Tbx5 and suggest the primary effect of Zic3 on cardiac development occurs during left-right patterning.
    Pediatric Research 09/2013; 74(5). DOI:10.1038/pr.2013.147 · 2.31 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Trisomy 21 (Down syndrome, DS) is the most common human genetic anomaly associated with heart defects. Based on evolutionary conservation, DS-associated heart defects have been modeled in mice. By generating and analyzing mouse mutants carrying different genomic rearrangements in human chromosome 21 (Hsa21) syntenic regions, we found the triplication of the Tiam1-Kcnj6 region on mouse chromosome 16 (Mmu16) resulted in DS-related cardiovascular abnormalities. In this study, we developed two tandem duplications spanning the Tiam1-Kcnj6 genomic region on Mmu16 using recombinase-mediated genome engineering, Dp(16)3Yey and Dp(16)4Yey, spanning the 2.1 Mb Tiam1-Il10rb and 3.7 Mb Ifnar1-Kcnj6 regions, respectively. We found that Dp(16)4Yey/+, but not Dp(16)3Yey/+, led to heart defects, suggesting the triplication of the Ifnar1-Kcnj6 region is sufficient to cause DS-associated heart defects. Our transcriptional analysis of Dp(16)4Yey/+ embryos showed that the Hsa21 gene orthologs located within the duplicated interval were expressed at the elevated levels, reflecting the consequences of the gene dosage alterations. Therefore, we have identified a 3.7 Mb genomic region, the smallest critical genomic region, for DS-associated heart defects, and our results should set the stage for the final step to establish the identities of the causal gene(s), whose elevated expression(s) directly underlie this major DS phenotype.
    Human Genetics 12/2013; 133(6). DOI:10.1007/s00439-013-1407-z · 4.82 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Mutations in zinc-finger in cerebellum 3 (ZIC3) result in heterotaxy or isolated congenital heart disease (CHD). The majority of reported mutations cluster in zinc-finger domains. We previously demonstrated that many of these lead to aberrant ZIC3 subcellular trafficking. A relative paucity of N- and C-terminal mutations has, however, prevented similar analyses in these regions. Notably, an N-terminal polyalanine expansion was recently identified in a patient with VACTERL, suggesting a potentially distinct function for this domain. Here, we report ZIC3 sequencing results from 440 unrelated patients with heterotaxy and CHD, the largest cohort yet examined. Variants were identified in 5.2% of sporadic male cases. This rate exceeds previous estimates of 1% and has important clinical implications for genetic testing and risk-based counseling. Eight of 11 were novel, including 5 N-terminal variants. Subsequent functional analyses included 4 additional reported but untested variants. Aberrant cytoplasmic localization and decreased luciferase transactivation were observed for all zinc-finger variants, but not for downstream or in-frame upstream variants, including both analyzed polyalanine expansions. Collectively, these results expand the ZIC3 mutational spectrum, support a higher than expected prevalence in sporadic cases, and suggest alternative functions for terminal mutations, highlighting a need for further study of these domains. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    Human Mutation 02/2014; 35(1). DOI:10.1002/humu.22457 · 5.14 Impact Factor
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