Patterns and Costs of Health Care Use of Children With Medical Complexity
ABSTRACT BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE:Health care use of children with medical complexity (CMC), such as those with neurologic impairment or other complex chronic conditions (CCCs) and those with technology assistance (TA), is not well understood. The objective of the study was to evaluate health care utilization and costs in a population-based sample of CMC in Ontario, Canada.METHODS:Hospital discharge data from 2005 through 2007 identified CMC. Complete health system use and costs were analyzed over the subsequent 2-year period.RESULTS:The study identified 15 771 hospitalized CMC (0.67% of children in Ontario); 10 340 (65.6%) had single-organ CCC, 1063 (6.7%) multiorgan CCC, 4368 (27.6%) neurologic impairment, and 1863 (11.8%) had TA. CMC saw a median of 13 outpatient physicians and 6 distinct subspecialists. Thirty-six percent received home care services. Thirty-day readmission varied from 12.6% (single CCC without TA) to 23.7% (multiple CCC with TA). CMC accounted for almost one-third of child health spending. Rehospitalization accounted for the largest proportion of subsequent costs (27.2%), followed by home care (11.3%) and physician services (6.0%). Home care costs were a much larger proportion of costs in children with TA. Children with multiple CCC with TA had costs 3.5 times higher than children with a single CCC without TA.CONCLUSIONS:Although a small proportion of the population, CMC account for a substantial proportion of health care costs. CMC make multiple transitions across providers and care settings and CMC with TA have higher costs and home care use. Initiatives to improve their health outcomes and decrease costs need to focus on the entire continuum of care.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Effective care coordination is a key quality and safety strategy for populations with chronic conditions, including children with medical complexity (CMC). However, gaps remain in parent report of the need for care coordination help and receipt of care coordination help. New models must close this gap while maintaining family-centered focus. A three-armed randomized controlled trial conducted in an established medical home utilized an advanced practice registered nurse intervention based on Presler's model of clinic-based care coordination. The model supported families of CMC across settings using telephone only or telephone and video telehealth care coordination. Effectiveness was evaluated from many perspectives and this paper reports on a subset of outcomes that includes family-centered care (FCC), need for care coordination help and adequacy of care coordination help received. FCC at baseline and end of study showed no significant difference between groups. Median FCC scores of 18.0-20.0 across all groups indicated high FCC within the medical home. No significant differences were found in the need for care coordination help within or between groups and over time. No significant difference was found in the adequacy of help received between groups at baseline. However, this indicator increased significantly over time for both intervention groups. These findings suggest that in an established medical home with high levels of FCC, families of CMC have unmet needs for care coordination help that are addressed by the APRN telehealth care coordination model.Maternal and Child Health Journal 11/2014; DOI:10.1007/s10995-014-1654-1 · 2.24 Impact Factor
- Canadian Medical Association Journal 10/2014; 186(16). DOI:10.1503/cmaj.141036 · 5.81 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Developing improved systems of care for children with special health care needs (CSHCN) requires accurate identification and stratification of this population. This study was designed to assess the ability of a brief screener to identify and stratify CSHCN in a primary care clinic to focus future quality improvement initiatives and allocate resources. All families presenting for health maintenance visits or acute care appointments at an academic primary care clinic between September 5, 2012 and September 28, 2012 were asked to complete the CSHCN Screener(©). This panel of patients was compared to registries previously created by: (1) retrospective chart reviews using published lists of International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (ICD9) codes for CSHCN and (2) direct physician referral to a clinic case manager providing care coordination services to CSHCN. Screeners identified 246 CSHCN (16.8 % of unique completed screeners). Scores ranged from 0 to 5; higher scores indicate higher levels of complexity. Patients with positive screens had a mean score of 2.4. Patients previously identified by retrospective ICD9 search who completed a screener had a mean score of 1.6 with nearly one-half having negative screens. Patients previously identified by physician referral who completed a screener had a mean score of 2.7 with nearly one-half having scores of 4 or 5. The CSHCN Screener(©) can be utilized in an academic primary care clinic to prospectively identify CSHCN and potentially offers a more clinically meaningful method of identification given its inherent ability to stratify this population based on complexity of medical needs.Maternal and Child Health Journal 12/2014; DOI:10.1007/s10995-014-1644-3 · 2.24 Impact Factor