Quality of life and control of allergic rhinitis in patients from regions beyond western Europe and the United States.
ABSTRACT There is comparatively little information on health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in subjects with allergic rhinitis (AR) or allergic rhinoconjunctivitis (AR/C) in countries beyond western Europe and North America. The primary aim of this investigation was therefore to review and assess the information in the public domain on HRQoL in AR/C patients from diverse regions of the world, represented by different countries, including Argentina, Australia, Brazil, Russia, Singapore, South Africa and Turkey. Second, in view of the absence of a standardized definition for 'AR control', the review aimed to determine whether a working definition of AR/C can be inferred from validated tests or other instruments documented to date. Despite the comparatively low number of studies, this review demonstrated that overall the symptoms of AR/C impair the HRQoL of patients in these regions by adversely impacting sleep, daily activities, physical and mental status and social functioning, similar to that demonstrated in much larger numbers of studies of AR/C patients in Europe and the United States. Furthermore, the findings of the review suggest that 'overall' control of the disease should encompass reduction of nasal and ocular symptoms, as well as improvements in HRQoL, comorbid conditions and cognition. Although some instruments are currently available for measuring control of AR, none are capable of assessing all these aspects, emphasizing the need to develop appropriate new instruments.
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ABSTRACT: In a review of rupatadine published in 2008, the primary focus was on its role as an antihistamine, with a thorough evaluation of its pharmacology and interaction with histamine H1 -receptors. At the time, however, evidence was already emerging of a broader mechanism of action for rupatadine involving other mediators implicated in the inflammatory cascade. Over the past few years, the role of platelet-activating factor (PAF) as a potent mediator involved in the hypersensitivity-type allergic reaction has gained greater recognition. Rupatadine has dual affinity for histamine H1 -receptors and PAF receptors. In view of the Allergic Rhinitis and its Impact on Asthma group's call for oral antihistamines to exhibit additive anti-allergic/anti-inflammatory properties, further exploration of rupatadine's anti-PAF effects was a logical step forward. New studies have demonstrated that rupatadine inhibits PAF effects in nasal airways and produces a greater reduction in nasal symptoms than levocetirizine. A meta-analysis involving more than 2500 patients has consolidated the clinical evidence for rupatadine in allergic rhinoconjunctivitis in adults and children (level of evidence Ia, recommendation A). Other recent advances include observational studies of rupatadine in everyday clinical practice situations and approval of a new formulation (1 mg/ml oral solution) for use in children. In this reappraisal, we revisit some key properties and pivotal clinical studies of rupatadine and examine new clinical data in more detail including studies that measured health-related quality of life and studies that investigated the efficacy and safety of rupatadine in other indications such as acquired cold urticaria, mosquito bite allergy and mastocytosis. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.Allergy 01/2015; 70 Suppl 100:1-24. DOI:10.1111/all.12531 · 6.00 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Purpose of review This review describes recent findings and trends in prevalence and treatment of allergic ocular diseases. Although the major focus is on seasonal and perennial allergic conjunctivitis, related disorders will also be considered. Recent findings Published reports from countries around the world suggest that the spectrum of atopic diseases, including seasonal and perennial allergic conjunctivitis, is continuing its pattern of increasing prevalence, which has been well documented over the past few decades. In addition, although treatment modalities have focused on topical formulations including antihistamines and corticosteroids, there is a significant emphasis on immunotherapy as an alternative treatment modality, particularly in the USA. Summary Allergic conjunctivitis is a key component in the spectrum of allergic diseases that is sometimes collectively referred to as rhinoconjunctivitis. Because of its high prevalence worldwide, it exacts an increasing toll in terms of patient discomfort, morbidity, and loss of productivity. Current estimates suggest that at least 20% of the overall population suffers from some form of allergic conjunctivitis, many without ever seeking treatments. In addition, a significant proportion of patients experience chronic forms of allergy that are less responsive to existing therapies. Recent approval of immunotherapy-based treatments may address this therapeutic gap.Current Opinion in Allergy and Clinical Immunology 08/2014; 14(5). DOI:10.1097/ACI.0000000000000100 · 3.66 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Background Grass allergen immunotherapy (AIT) reduces symptom severity in seasonal allergic rhinoconjunctivitis (ARC) but its impact on general health-related utility has not been characterised for the purposes of economic evaluation. The aim of this study was to model the preferred measure of utility, EQ-5D index, from symptom severity and estimate incremental quality adjusted life years (QALYs) associated with SQ-standardised grass immunotherapy tablet (GRAZAX®, 75,000 SQ-T/2,800 BAU, ALK, Denmark). Methods Data were analysed from five consecutive pollen seasons in a randomised placebo controlled trial of GRAZAX®. Binomial and Gaussian mixed effects modelling related weekly EQ-5D index score to daily symptom and medication scores (DSS & DMS respectively). In turn, daily EQ-5D index was estimated from ARC symptoms and medication use. Results DSS and DMS were the principal predictors of ‘perfect’ health (EQ-5D = 1.000; binomial) and ‘imperfect’ health (EQ-5D < 1.000; Gaussian). Each unit increase in DSS and DMS reduced the odds of ‘perfect’ health (EQ-5D = 1.000) by 27% and 16% respectively, and reduced ‘imperfect’ health by 0.17 and 0.13, respectively. Gender remained the only other significant main fixed effect (Male odds ratio [OR] = 1.82). Incremental estimated EQ-5D index utility for GRAZAX® was observed from day -30 to day +70 of the pooled pollen season; mean daily utility for GRAZAX® = 0.938 units (95%CI 0.932-0.943) vs. 0.914 (0.907-0.921) for placebo, an incremental difference of 0.0238 (p < 0.001). This translates into an incremental 0.0324 Quality Adjusted Life Years over the five year study period. Conclusions ARC symptoms and medication use are the main predictors of EQ-5D index. The incremental QALYs observed for GRAZAX® may not fully describe the health benefits of this treatment, suggesting that economic modelling may be conservative.Health and Quality of Life Outcomes 06/2014; 12(1):99. DOI:10.1186/1477-7525-12-99 · 2.10 Impact Factor