There is comparatively little information on health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in subjects with allergic rhinitis (AR) or allergic rhinoconjunctivitis (AR/C) in countries beyond western Europe and North America. The primary aim of this investigation was therefore to review and assess the information in the public domain on HRQoL in AR/C patients from diverse regions of the world, represented by different countries, including Argentina, Australia, Brazil, Russia, Singapore, South Africa and Turkey. Second, in view of the absence of a standardized definition for 'AR control', the review aimed to determine whether a working definition of AR/C can be inferred from validated tests or other instruments documented to date. Despite the comparatively low number of studies, this review demonstrated that overall the symptoms of AR/C impair the HRQoL of patients in these regions by adversely impacting sleep, daily activities, physical and mental status and social functioning, similar to that demonstrated in much larger numbers of studies of AR/C patients in Europe and the United States. Furthermore, the findings of the review suggest that 'overall' control of the disease should encompass reduction of nasal and ocular symptoms, as well as improvements in HRQoL, comorbid conditions and cognition. Although some instruments are currently available for measuring control of AR, none are capable of assessing all these aspects, emphasizing the need to develop appropriate new instruments.
"The Spanish study (mainly moderate-severe symptoms) found that over half of the subjects experienced poor sleep quality, while one-fifth suffered excessive diurnal somnolence . A systematic review of studies comparing rhinoconjunctivitis symptoms with HRQoL impairment found that sleep, daily activities, physical and mental status and social functioning were all impacted consistently . Within the current study population the relative difference in sleep problems between GRAZAX® and placebo (Δ35%; p = 0.0009) was the highest of any domain of the Rhinoconjunctivitis Quality of Life questionnaire (RQLQ) . "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
Grass allergen immunotherapy (AIT) reduces symptom severity in seasonal allergic rhinoconjunctivitis (ARC) but its impact on general health-related utility has not been characterised for the purposes of economic evaluation. The aim of this study was to model the preferred measure of utility, EQ-5D index, from symptom severity and estimate incremental quality adjusted life years (QALYs) associated with SQ-standardised grass immunotherapy tablet (GRAZAX®, 75,000 SQ-T/2,800 BAU, ALK, Denmark).
Data were analysed from five consecutive pollen seasons in a randomised placebo controlled trial of GRAZAX®. Binomial and Gaussian mixed effects modelling related weekly EQ-5D index score to daily symptom and medication scores (DSS & DMS respectively). In turn, daily EQ-5D index was estimated from ARC symptoms and medication use.
DSS and DMS were the principal predictors of ‘perfect’ health (EQ-5D = 1.000; binomial) and ‘imperfect’ health (EQ-5D < 1.000; Gaussian). Each unit increase in DSS and DMS reduced the odds of ‘perfect’ health (EQ-5D = 1.000) by 27% and 16% respectively, and reduced ‘imperfect’ health by 0.17 and 0.13, respectively. Gender remained the only other significant main fixed effect (Male odds ratio [OR] = 1.82). Incremental estimated EQ-5D index utility for GRAZAX® was observed from day -30 to day +70 of the pooled pollen season; mean daily utility for GRAZAX® = 0.938 units (95%CI 0.932-0.943) vs. 0.914 (0.907-0.921) for placebo, an incremental difference of 0.0238 (p < 0.001). This translates into an incremental 0.0324 Quality Adjusted Life Years over the five year study period.
ARC symptoms and medication use are the main predictors of EQ-5D index. The incremental QALYs observed for GRAZAX® may not fully describe the health benefits of this treatment, suggesting that economic modelling may be conservative.
Health and Quality of Life Outcomes 06/2014; 12(1):99. DOI:10.1186/1477-7525-12-99 · 2.12 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Patients allergic to pollen have been known to become more symptomatic during pollen season compared with the nonpollen season. However, there are few studies regarding whether higher exposure to pollen might increase the prevalence of allergic diseases.
An ecological analysis was conducted to evaluate whether pollen exposure is associated with the prevalence of allergic diseases in schoolchildren. Pollen count data of Japanese cedar (Cryptomeria japonica) and Japanese cypress (Chamaecyparis obtusa), which are the major pollen allergens in Japan, were obtained from each prefecture. The prevalence of allergic diseases in schoolchildren in each prefecture was based on a nationwide cross-sectional survey using the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood questionnaire.
After omitting three prefectures where pollen data were not available, data of 44 prefectures were analysed. The prevalence of allergic rhinoconjunctivitis in children aged 6–7 years was positively associated with both cedar and cypress pollen counts (P = 0.01, both), whereas the prevalence of allergic rhinoconjunctivitis in children aged 13–14 years was positively associated with only cypress pollen counts (P = 0.003). Furthermore, the prevalence of asthma was positively associated with cedar pollen counts in 6- to 7-year-old children (P = 0.003) but not cypress pollen counts in either age group.
There are ecological associations between pollen counts and the prevalence of allergic diseases in Japanese schoolchildren. Further studies are needed to determine whether the difference between the effects of cedar and cypress pollens is attributable to pollen counts or allergenicity.
Jacqueline Reid, M. Lesley Wiseman-Orr, Andrea Nolan, E. Marian Scott
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