Clinical Profile of Neurological Manifestation in Human Immunodeficiency Virus-positive Patients

Department of Medicine, King George's Medical University, Lucknow, UP, India. E-mail: .
North American journal of medical sciences 11/2012; 4(11):596-9. DOI: 10.4103/1947-2714.103329
Source: PubMed
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    ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION: Puerarin extracted from radix puraeriae is shown to exert a variety of pharmacological effects including neuroprotective properties. However, its mechanisms of action are needed to further explore. The study was designed to investigate the mechanism of puerarin treatment of acute spinal cord ischemia-reperfusion injury (SCI/RI) in rats. MATERIAL AND METHODS: SCI/RI was conducted in male Sprague-Dawley rats, and 50mg/kg of puerarin was injected intraperitoneally at1, 2, 4 and 6hours after reperfusion, followed by the same dose of injection every 24hours for 2 days. Glutamate level, metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluR) mRNA expression, and apoptosis indices were examined. Neurologic function was assessed at 48hour of reperfusion. RESULT: SCI/RI caused extensive motor deficit associated with an elevation of glutamate level and mGluRs-1 mRNA expression, while puerarin administration improved motor deficit, and decreased glutamate level and inhibited mGluRs-1 mRNA expression. DISCUSSIONS: The present study demonstrated that administration of puerarin reduced the spinal ischemia/reperfusion injury, and suggested that the neuroprotective mechanism of puerarin involved a decrease in glutamate release and mGluRs-1 mRNA expression.
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    ABSTRACT: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) associated lymphoma is an important public health concern; however, the epidemiological data available from India is sparse. The present study was carried out at a tertiary cancer care center in South India to analyze the scenario of HIV-associated lymphoma. This was a retrospective observational study conducted at our center, on consecutive patients diagnosed with HIV-associated lymphoma, from January 2008 to December 2012. A total of 44 patients were diagnosed with HIV-associated lymphoma, of which 18 opted for treatment. There were 11 males and 7 females in the study population. Median interval from the diagnosis of HIV infection to diagnosis of lymphoma was 18 months. Median CD4 count at the time of lymphoma diagnosis was 218/mm(3). Five patients had Hodgkin's lymphoma, and the rest had non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. Five out of 18 (28%) patients in the present study expired during treatment. Ten (55.5%) patients are alive and lymphoma free, with a median follow up of 18 months. More than half of our treated patients are lymphoma free with a median follow up of 18 months; hence treatment of patients with HIV-associated lymphoma should be encouraged.
    07/2013; 5(7):432-7. DOI:10.4103/1947-2714.115772
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    ABSTRACT: Spinal tuberculosis (TB) or Pott's spine is the commonest extrapulmonary manifestation of TB. It spreads through hematogenous route. Clinically, it presents with constitutional symptoms, back pain, tenderness, paraplegia or paraparesis, and kyphotic or scoliotic deformities. Pott's spine accounts for 2% of all cases of TB, 15% of extrapulmonary, and 50% of skeletal TB. The paradiscal, central, anterior subligamentous, and neural arch are the common vertebral lesions. Thoracic vertebrae are commonly affected followed by lumbar and cervical vertebrae. Plain radiographs are usually the initial investigation in spinal TB. For a radiolucent lesion to be apparent on a plain radiograph there should be 30% of bone mineral loss. Computed tomographic scanning provides much better bony detail of irregular lytic lesions, sclerosis, disc collapse, and disruption of bone circumference than plain radiograph. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is the best diagnostic modality for Pott's spine and is more sensitive than other modalities. MRI frequently demonstrates disc collapse/destruction, cold abscess, vertebral wedging/collapse, marrow edema, and spinal deformities. Ultrasound and computed tomographic guided needle aspiration or biopsy is the technique for early histopathological diagnosis. Recently, the coexistence of human immunodeficiency virus infections and TB has been increased globally. In recent years, diffusion-weighted MRI (DW-MRI) and apparent diffusion coefficient values in combination with MRI are used to some extent in the diagnosis of spinal TB. We have reviewed related literature through internet. The terms searched on Google scholar and PubMed are TB, extrapulmonary TB, skeletal TB, spinal TB, Pott's spine, Pott's paraplegia, MRI, and computed tomography (CT).
    07/2013; 5(7):404-411. DOI:10.4103/1947-2714.115775
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