Fibroblast growth factor 23 and soluble klotho in children with chronic kidney disease.
Fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23), a bone-derived phosphaturic hormone, is elevated in chronic kidney disease (CKD). There are scarce data on the levels of its essential co-receptor klotho, and longitudinal changes in FGF23 levels are also unknown.Methods
We examined FGF23 and soluble klotho (s-klotho) levels over 1 year in 154 children with CKD Stages 1-5 (CKD1-5), were on dialysis or who have received a transplantation.ResultsIn children with CKD1-5 and who were receiving dialysis, FGF23 correlated inversely with the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) (P < 0.001), whereas a decrease in s-klotho was observed with a lower eGFR (P = 0.01). There was no correlation between FGF23 and serum phosphate (P) or parathyroid hormone (PTH) in our cohort wherein 89 and 66%, respectively, had normal levels. FGF23 increased by 6-fold over a 12-month period in children with eGFR of 15-29 mL/min/1.73 m(2), with an overall 5% annual increase in the CKD1-5 and dialysis cohort. High FGF23 levels were seen with high calcium (Ca) levels (P < 0.001). FGF23 levels were high when 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D [1,25(OH)(2)D] were deficient (P = 0.05 and P < 0.001, respectively). s-klotho levels correlated positively with 25(OH)D (P < 0.001) and negatively with PTH (P = 0.04) and age (P = 0.03). Multivariate regression analysis demonstrated a strong relationship between FGF23 and eGFR, whereas the association between s-klotho and eGFR as observed in univariate analysis was lost following the adjustment of confounders. In transplanted patients, FGF23 correlated with eGFR (P = 0.02) and 25(OH)D (P = 0.05).Conclusions
This study shows increasing FGF23 and reduced s-klotho levels with progressive renal failure even in a population of children with well-controlled P levels. Novel associations between FGF23 and serum Ca as well as 25(OH)D warrant further investigation.
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ABSTRACT: Cardiac dysfunction in CKD is characterized by aberrant cardiac remodeling with hypertrophy and fibrosis. CKD is a state of severe systemic Klotho deficiency, and restoration of Klotho attenuates vascular calcification associated with CKD. We examined the role of Klotho in cardiac remodeling in models of Klotho deficiency-genetic Klotho hypomorphism, high dietary phosphate intake, aging, and CKD. Klotho-deficient mice exhibited cardiac dysfunction and hypertrophy before 12 weeks of age followed by fibrosis. In wild-type mice, the induction of CKD led to severe cardiovascular changes not observed in control mice. Notably, non-CKD mice fed a high-phosphate diet had lower Klotho levels and greatly accelerated cardiac remodeling associated with normal aging compared with those on a normal diet. Chronic elevation of circulating Klotho because of global overexpression alleviated the cardiac remodeling induced by either high-phosphate diet or CKD. Regardless of the cause of Klotho deficiency, the extent of cardiac hypertrophy and fibrosis correlated tightly with plasma phosphate concentration and inversely with plasma Klotho concentration, even when adjusted for all other covariables. High-fibroblast growth factor-23 concentration positively correlated with cardiac remodeling in a Klotho-deficient state but not a Klotho-replete state. In vitro, Klotho inhibited TGF-β1-, angiotensin II-, or high phosphate-induced fibrosis and abolished TGF-β1- or angiotensin II-induced hypertrophy of cardiomyocytes. In conclusion, Klotho deficiency is a novel intermediate mediator of pathologic cardiac remodeling, and fibroblast growth factor-23 may contribute to cardiac remodeling in concert with Klotho deficiency in CKD, phosphotoxicity, and aging.Journal of the American Society of Nephrology 10/2014; DOI:10.1681/ASN.2014050465 · 9.47 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death in pediatric patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD), and vascular calcifications start early in the course of CKD. Based on the growing body of evidence that alterations of bone and mineral metabolism and the therapies designed to treat the skeletal consequences of CKD are linked to cardiovascular calcifications, the Kidney Disease, Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) working group redefined renal osteodystrophy as a systemic disorder of mineral and bone metabolism due to CKD, and this newly defined disorder is now known as "chronic kidney disease-mineral bone disorder (CKD-MBD)". Elevated fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23), a bone-derived protein, is the first biochemical abnormality to be associated with CKD-MBD, and high FGF23 levels correlate with increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, suggesting that bone is central to both initiating and perpetuating the abnormal mineral metabolism and vascular disease in CKD. The current standard therapies for CKD-MBD affect FGF23 levels differently; non-calcium-based binders with or without concurrent use of dietary phosphate restriction reduce FGF23 levels, while calcium-based binders seem to either increase or have no effect on FGF23 levels. Active vitamin D sterols increase FGF23 levels, whereas therapy with calcimimetics decreases FGF23 levels. Thus, the appropriate therapy that will minimize the rise in FGF23 and prevent cardiovascular morbidity remains to be defined.Pediatric Nephrology 08/2014; DOI:10.1007/s00467-014-2919-z · 2.88 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Data for fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) and particularly for Klotho in healthy children are limited. We aimed to investigate the relationship between FGF23 and Klotho with age and TmP/GFR and to evaluate parameters that might affect FGF23 and Klotho. In 159 healthy children (82 boys) with a mean±SD age of 8.78±3.47years we measured FGF23 (intact FGF23/iFGF23 and C-terminal FGF23/cFGF23) and soluble aKlotho serum levels by ELISA. Mean±SD value for cFGF23, was 51.14±12.79 RU/ml whereas median (range) values for iFGF23 and Klotho were 35 (8.8, 120) pg/ml and 1945 (372, 5866) pg/ml respectively. Neither FGF23 nor Klotho were significantly associated with age. Pubertal children had higher Klotho than prepubertal (p<0.05), and girls had higher levels of cFGF23 (p<0.05) and Klotho (p<0.001) than boys. Serum phosphate and TmP/GFR were positively associated with cFGF23 (p<0.01 and p<0.001), iFGF23 (p<0.05 and p<0.001) and Klotho (p<0.05 and p<0.01). Klotho was positively correlated with IGF-I (p<0.0001) and 1,25 (OH)2 vitamin D (p<0.05). In this study we provide data on cFGF23, iFGF23, and Klotho measured simultaneously in healthy children. The positive association of serum phosphate and TmP/GFR with FGF23 and Klotho suggests that they have a counterregulatory effect on phosphate homeostasis. The strong association of Klotho with IGF-I could indicate a role of Klotho in linear growth through phosphate regulation, but further studies are required.Bone 05/2014; 66. DOI:10.1016/j.bone.2014.05.012 · 4.46 Impact Factor