Jojoba (Simmondsia chinensis (Link) Schn.) is a nontraditional crop in arid and semi-arid areas. Vegetative propagation can be achieved by layering, grafting, or rooting semi-hardwood cuttings, but the highest number of possible propagules is limited by the size of the plants and time of the year. Micropropagation is highly recommended strategy for obtaining jojoba elite clones. For culture initiation, single-node explants are cultivated on Murashige and Skoog medium (MS) supplemented with Gamborg's vitamins (B5), 11.1 μM BA (N(6)-benzyl-adenine), 0.5 μM IBA (indole-3-butyric acid), and 1.4 μM GA(3) (gibberellic acid). Internodal and apical cuttings proliferate on MS medium containing B5 vitamins and 4.4 μM BA. Rooting is achieved on MS medium (half strength mineral salt) amended with B5 vitamins and 14.7 μM IBA during 7 days and transferred to develop in auxin-free rooting medium. Plantlets are acclimatized using a graduated humidity regime on soil: peat: perlite (5:1:1) substrate. This micropagation protocol produces large numbers of uniform plants from selected genotypes of jojoba.
"In this respect Singh et al. (2008) mentioned that bud initiation for male and female genotypes of Jojoba was found to be the best on MS medium supplemented with 1 mg/l BA and 12 mg/l adenine. However, Llorente and Apostolo (2013) initiated single node explants of Jojoba on MS medium supplemented with B5 vitamins, 2.5 mg/l BA, 0.1 mg/l IBA, and 0.35 mg/l GA 3 , and can be proliferated on MS medium containing B5 vitamins and 1 mg/l BA. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Jojoba or Hohoba (Simmondsia chinensis (Link) Schneider) is an economically important plant in arid and semi-arid areas. Micropropagation is a highly recommended strategy for obtaining Jojoba elite clones. The present investigation aimed to study the effect of explant type and sequential subcultures on the in vitro multiple shoots formation of Jojoba. Four explants form female mature plants were used for the in vitro establishment of Jojoba; shoot tips and terminal, sub-terminal and basal stem node segments. It was found that Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with 6-benzylaminopurine (BA) at 1.25 mg/l could be a promising treatment for the in vitro establishment of all explant types. On the other hand, BA at 2 mg/l is the most promising concentration for shoot multiplication, which gave higher values of mean number of axillary shoots during all successive subcultures than the other treatments. It was also found that the mean number of axillary shoots increased till the 4 th subculture and then it decreased in the 5 th and 6 th subcultures. By comparing the different explant types of Jojoba, shoot tips recorded the highest mean number and length of axillary shoots.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Jojoba (Simmondsia chinensis), is a medicinal and oil-yielding, multi-purpose species of the family Simmondsiaceae. The most valuable product of jojoba seed is the liquid wax or jojoba oil which is used extensively in the cosmetic and bio-fuel industry. Propagation of jojoba is possible using conventional methods, but it is time consuming and cumbersome owing to long rotation periods, male-biased population, and long flowering and seed set time. The development of an efficient regeneration system is a prerequisite for a number of biotechnological interventions for the improvement of jojoba, such as genetic transformation, production of useful metabolites in vitro, etc. During the past decade, therefore, several attempts have been made for in vitro propagation of jojoba. Organogenesis has been achieved in this species from mature as well as juvenile explants. Present communication reports an overview of the in vitro regeneration of jojoba via organogenesis and somatic embryogenesis. Factors affecting organogenesis as well as production of synthetic seeds using shoot tips and axillary buds have also been discussed; however, efforts need to be made to develop an efficient genetic transformation system in jojoba. The purpose of this review is to focus upon the current information on in vitro propagation and biotechnological advances made in jojoba.
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