"Breastfeeding" by Feeding Expressed Mother's Milk

Department of Pediatrics, University of California San Francisco, 3333 California Street, Box 0503, San Francisco, CA 94143-0503, USA. Electronic address: .
Pediatric Clinics of North America (Impact Factor: 2.12). 02/2013; 60(1):227-46. DOI: 10.1016/j.pcl.2012.10.003
Source: PubMed


This article provides the pediatric community with a practical overview of milk expression and an update on the recent literature. Approaches for working mothers, preterm infants, critically ill infants, and mothers before lactogenesis II are presented separately, as these groups may benefit from practices tailored to individual needs.

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    • "Women who entered pregnancy with hypertension, diabetes, or obesity were significantly less likely to report experiencing the BFHI-consistent hospital practices of having their baby in their arms during the first hour after birth and having hospital staff help them start breastfeeding. Therefore, hospitals and clinicians alike should pay particular attention to showing women with complex pregnancies how to breastfeed (including expressing breast milk for bottle or syringe feeding [43]) and supporting early breastfeeding efforts, including after cesarean delivery [44], [45]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background Breastfeeding is beneficial for women and infants, and medical contraindications are rare. Prenatal and labor-related complications may hinder breastfeeding, but supportive hospital practices may encourage women who intend to breastfeed. We measured the relationship between having a complex pregnancy (entering pregnancy with hypertension, diabetes, or obesity) and early infant feeding, accounting for breastfeeding intentions and supportive hospital practices. Methods We performed a retrospective analysis of data from a nationally-representative survey of women who gave birth in 2011–2012 in a US hospital (N = 2400). We used logistic regression to examine the relationship between pregnancy complexity and breastfeeding. Self-reported prepregnancy diabetes or hypertension, gestational diabetes, or obesity indicated a complex pregnancy. The outcome was feeding status 1 week postpartum; any breastfeeding was evaluated among women intending to breastfeed (N = 1990), and exclusive breastfeeding among women who intended to exclusively breastfeed (N = 1418). We also tested whether breastfeeding intentions or supportive hospital practices mediated the relationship between pregnancy complexity and infant feeding status. Results More than 33% of women had a complex pregnancy; these women had 30% lower odds of intending to breastfeed (AOR = 0.71; 95% CI, 0.52–0.98). Rates of intention to exclusively breastfeed were similar for women with and without complex pregnancies. Women who intended to breastfeed had similar rates of any breastfeeding 1 week postpartum regardless of pregnancy complexity, but complexity was associated with >30% lower odds of exclusive breastfeeding 1 week among women who intended to exclusively breastfeed (AOR = 0.68; 95% CI, 0.47–0.98). Supportive hospital practices were strongly associated with higher odds of any or exclusive breastfeeding 1 week postpartum (AOR = 4.03; 95% CI, 1.81–8.94; and AOR = 2.68; 95% CI, 1.70–4.23, respectively). Conclusions Improving clinical and hospital support for women with complex pregnancies may increase breastfeeding rates and the benefits of breastfeeding for women and infants.
    PLoS ONE 08/2014; 9(8):e104820. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0104820 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Expressing breast milk has become increasingly prevalent, particularly in some developed countries. Concurrently, breast pumps have evolved to be more sophisticated and aesthetically appealing, adapted for domestic use, and have become more readily available. In the past, expressed breast milk feeding was predominantly for those infants who were premature, small or unwell; however it has become increasingly common for healthy term infants. The aim of this paper is to systematically explore the literature related to breast milk expressing by women who have healthy term infants, including the prevalence of breast milk expressing, reported reasons for, methods of, and outcomes related to, expressing. Databases (Medline, CINAHL, JSTOR, ProQuest Central, PsycINFO, PubMed and the Cochrane library) were searched using the keywords milk expression, breast milk expression, breast milk pumping, prevalence, outcomes, statistics and data, with no limit on year of publication. Reference lists of identified papers were also examined. A hand-search was conducted at the Australian Breastfeeding Association Lactation Resource Centre. Only English language papers were included. All papers about expressing breast milk for healthy term infants were considered for inclusion, with a focus on the prevalence, methods, reasons for and outcomes of breast milk expression. A total of twenty two papers were relevant to breast milk expression, but only seven papers reported the prevalence and/or outcomes of expressing amongst mothers of well term infants; all of the identified papers were published between 1999 and 2012. Many were descriptive rather than analytical and some were commentaries which included calls for more research, more dialogue and clearer definitions of breastfeeding. While some studies found an association between expressing and the success and duration of breastfeeding, others found the opposite. In some cases these inconsistencies were compounded by imprecise definitions of breastfeeding and breast milk feeding. There is limited evidence about the prevalence and outcomes of expressing breast milk amongst mothers of healthy term infants. The practice of expressing breast milk has increased along with the commercial availability of a range of infant feeding equipment. The reasons for expressing have become more complex while the outcomes, when they have been examined, are contradictory.
    BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 11/2013; 13(1):212. DOI:10.1186/1471-2393-13-212 · 2.19 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose: A pilot study was conducted to assess the acceptability and feasibility of a breast milk expression education and support intervention in mothers of preterm infants and study procedures. Subjects: Forty mothers of preterm infants born at less than 30 weeks of gestation. Design: Pilot randomized controlled trial. Methods: Mothers of preterm infants were randomly allocated to the breast milk expression education and support intervention or standard care. The experimental intervention encompassed a breast milk expression education session on 7 themes, telephone follow-up, and telephone helpline. Main outcome measures: Data related to the acceptability and feasibility of the intervention and study procedures were collected throughout the study. At the end of the study, mothers allocated to the experimental intervention completed a self-report questionnaire assessing the acceptability of each of the intervention components. Results: It was feasible to recruit 70% of eligible mothers and retain 83% of mothers who consented to participate in the study. Mothers reported that all the intervention components were appropriate and effective in supporting their breast milk production. Although the reliability of the data collection method was demonstrated, the fidelity of the telephone follow-up faced some challenges. Conclusions: Both the intervention and study procedures were acceptable and feasible. Improvements related to the fidelity of the intervention would ensure the feasibility and internal validity of a larger-scale trial.
    Advances in Neonatal Care 08/2014; 14(4):E9-E19. DOI:10.1097/ANC.0000000000000113 · 1.12 Impact Factor
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