Establishing Successful Breastfeeding in the Newborn Period
Division of Pediatric Hospital Medicine, The Geisel School of Medicine at Dartmouth, One Rope Ferry Road, Hanover, NH 03755, USA. Electronic address: .Pediatric Clinics of North America (Impact Factor: 2.12). 02/2013; 60(1):147-68. DOI: 10.1016/j.pcl.2012.09.013
The first days after delivery of a newborn infant are critical for breastfeeding establishment. Successful initiation and continuation-especially of exclusive breastfeeding-have become public health priorities, but it is fraught with many individual- and systems-level barriers. In this article, we review how hospital newborn services can be constructed or restructured to support the breastfeeding mother-infant dyad so that they can achieve high levels of breastfeeding success. Important positive and negative factors from the prenatal period, and the preparation for hospital discharge are also discussed.
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ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVES: This article summarizes the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality's evidence report on the effects of breastfeeding on term infant and maternal health outcomes in developed countries. EVIDENCE REPORT DATA SOURCES: Medline, CINAHL, Cochrane Library, bibliographies of selected reviews, and suggestions from domain experts were surveyed. Searches were limited to English-language publications. EVIDENCE REPORT REVIEW METHODS: Eligible comparisons examined the association between differential exposure to breastfeeding and health outcomes. We assessed 15 infant and six maternal outcomes. For four outcomes, we also updated previously published systematic reviews. For the rest of the outcomes, we either summarized previous systematic reviews or conducted new systematic reviews; randomized and non-randomized comparative trials, prospective cohorts, and case-control studies were included. Adjusted estimates were extracted from non-experimental designs. The studies were graded for methodological quality. We did not draw conclusions from poor quality studies. EVIDENCE REPORT RESULTS: We screened over 9,000 abstracts. Thirty-two primary studies on term infant health outcomes, 43 primary studies on maternal health outcomes, and 28 systematic reviews or meta-analyses that covered approximately 400 individual studies were included in this review. A history of breastfeeding was associated with a reduction in the risk of acute otitis media, nonspecific gastroenteritis, severe lower respiratory tract infections, atopic dermatitis, asthma (young children), obesity, type 1 and 2 diabetes, childhood leukemia, and sudden infant death syndrome. There was no relationship between breastfeeding in term infants and cognitive performance. There were insufficient good quality data to address the relationship between breastfeeding and cardiovascular diseases and infant mortality. For maternal outcomes, a history of lactation was associated with a reduced risk of type 2 diabetes, breast, and ovarian cancer. Early cessation of breastfeeding or no breastfeeding was associated with an increased risk of maternal postpartum depression. There was no relationship between a history of lactation and the risk of osteoporosis. The effect of breastfeeding in mothers on return-to-prepregnancy weight was negligible, and the effect of breastfeeding on postpartum weight loss was unclear. EVIDENCE REPORT CONCLUSIONS: A history of breastfeeding is associated with a reduced risk of many diseases in infants and mothers. Future research would benefit from clearer selection criteria, definitions of breastfeeding exposure, and adjustment for potential confounders. Matched designs such as sibling analysis may provide a method to control for hereditary and household factors that are important in certain outcomes.Breastfeeding Medicine 10/2009; 4 Suppl 1(s1):S17-30. DOI:10.1089/bfm.2009.0050 · 1.25 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: This study aims to evaluate adherence to a clinical guideline for screening and prevention of neonatal hypoglycaemia on the post-natal wards. Retrospective chart review of 581 healthy term neonates born at a tertiary maternity hospital. Indications for hypoglycaemia screening included small for gestational age (SGA), infants of diabetic mothers (IDM; gestational, Type 1 or 2), symptomatic hypoglycaemia, macrosomia and wasted (undernourished) appearance. Outcomes were protocol entry and adherence with hypoglycaemia prevention strategies including early and frequent feeding and timely blood glucose measurement. Of 115 neonates screened for hypoglycaemia, 67 were IDM, 19 were SGA (including two both IDM and SGA), and two were macrosomic. One IDM and one SGA were not screened. Twenty-two neonates were screened for a reason not identifiable from the medical record, and 13 neonates were SGA by a definition different to the guideline definition, including five who were also IDM. Guideline adherence was variable. Few neonates (41 of 106, 39%) were fed in the first post-natal hour, and blood glucose measurement occurred later than recommended for 41 of 106 (39%) of neonates. Most IDM and SGA neonates were screened. While guideline adherence overall was comparable with other studies, neonates were fed late. We recommend staff education about benefits of early (within the first hour) frequent breastfeeding for neonates at risk.Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health 06/2013; 49(10). DOI:10.1111/jpc.12293 · 1.15 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The purpose of this article is to describe practice change designed to facilitate breastfeeding while maintaining glucose stabilization in infants born to diabetic mothers. Postpractice change outcomes of newborn blood glucose levels, formula supplementation, and colostrum feeds are specifically addressed. There were no significant differences between glucose values for infants given formula supplementation versus those fed colostrum. Postpractice change, admissions to the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) for glucose stabilization decreased and exclusive breastfeeding increased. © 2013 AWHONN, the Association of Women's Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses.Journal of Obstetric Gynecologic & Neonatal Nursing 11/2013; 42(6). DOI:10.1111/1552-6909.12260 · 1.02 Impact Factor
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