Physical activity, energy intake, and obesity prevalence among urban and rural schoolchildren aged 11-12 years in Japan

a Department of Health, Sports and Nutrition, Faculty of Health and Welfare, Kobe Women's University, 4-7-2 Minatojimanakamachi, Chuo-ku, Kobe, Japan.
Applied Physiology Nutrition and Metabolism (Impact Factor: 2.34). 12/2012; 37(6):1189-99. DOI: 10.1139/h2012-100
Source: PubMed


The prevalence of childhood overweight and obesity has been shown to differ among regions, including rural-urban regional differences within nations. This study obtained simultaneous accelerometry-derived physical activity, 24 h activity, and food records to clarify the potential contributing factors to rural-urban differences in childhood overweight and obesity in Japan. Sixth-grade children (n = 227, 11-12 years old) from two urban elementary schools in Kyoto and four rural elementary schools in Tohoku participated in the study. The children were instructed to wear a pedometer that included a uniaxial accelerometer and, assisted by their parents, keep minute-by-minute 24 h activity and food records. For 12 children, the total energy expenditure was measured by the doubly labeled water method that was used to correct the Lifecorder-predicted activity energy expenditure and physical activity level. The overweight and obesity prevalence was significantly higher in rural than in urban children. The number of steps per day, activity energy expenditure, physical activity level, and duration of walking to school were significantly lower in rural than in urban children. In contrast, the reported energy intake did not differ significantly between the regions. The physical activity and duration of the walk to school were significantly correlated with body mass index. Rural children had a higher prevalence of overweight and obesity, and this may be at least partly caused by lower physical activity, especially less time spent walking to school, than urban children.

19 Reads
  • Source
    • "Obesity has become a global epidemic associated with affluence , resulting from excessive energy and a lack of physical activity (Itoi et al., 2012). This can result in metabolic complications such as type 2 diabetes, hypertension , and atherosclerosis (Das et al., 2010). "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Ellagic acid (EA) is a natural polyphenol found in various fruits and vegetables. In this study, we examined the inhibitory effect of EA on fat accumulation in 3T3-L1 cells during adipogenesis. Our data showed that EA reduced fat accumulation by down-regulating adipogenic markers such as peroxisome proliferator activated receptor γ (PPARγ) and the CCAAT/enhancer binding protein α (C/EBPα) at the mRNA and protein levels in a dose-dependent manner. We found that the decrease in adipogenic markers resulted from reduced expression of some early adipogenic transcription factors such as KLF4, KLF5, Krox20, and C/EBPβ within 24 h. Also, these inhibitions were correlated with down-regulation of TG synthetic enzymes, causing inhibition of triglyceride (TG) levels in 3T3-L1 cells investigated by ORO staining and in zebrafish investigated by TG assay. Additionally, the cell cycle analysis showed that EA inhibited cell cycle progression by arresting cells at the G0/G1 phase. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    Phytotherapy Research 12/2014; 29(3). DOI:10.1002/ptr.5264 · 2.66 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Obesity is a worldwide pandemic, and the prevalence rate has doubled since the 1980s. Asian countries are also experiencing the global epidemic of obesity with its related health consequences. The prevalence of overweight and obesity are increasing at an alarming rate across all age groups in Asia. These increases are mainly attributed to rapid economic growth, which leads to socio-economic, nutrition and lifestyle transitions, resulting in a positive energy balance. In addition, fat mass and obesity-associated gene variants, copy number variants in chromosomes and epigenetic modifications have shown positive associations with the risk of obesity among Asians. In this review highlights of prevalence and related ecological and genetic factors that could influence the rapid rise in obesity among Asian populations are discussed.
    Obesity Reviews 03/2014; 3(1):16-37. DOI:10.1007/s13679-013-0088-1 · 8.00 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study is to determine the prevalence of obesity and to compare the associated risk factors between the adolescent children living in rural and urban areas. This cross-sectional study conducted among 3,918 high school students getting education in the city centre and rural areas of Eskisehir. A specially designed questionnaire form included questions about socio-demographic characteristics as well as cardiovascular risk factors including smoking status, diet habits (breakfasting, consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages and fruit and vegetable consumption), physical activity and time spent on computer and/or television. The prevalence of being overweight was 10.4% and 12.2% and the prevalence of obesity was 7.9% and 11.3% in rural and urban areas, respectively. In urban areas, being overweight was accompanied by prehypertension (OR=2.3, 95% Cl 1.6-3.3), hypertension (OR= 2.3, 95% CI 1.6-3.2), and family history of cardiovascular disease (OR =1.3, 95% CI 1-1.7), and obesity was accompanied by prehypertension (OR= 2.3, 95% CI 1.6-3.3), hypertension (OR=3.9, 95% Cl 2.9-5.3), excessive use of computer/TV (OR=1.3, 95% CI 1.1-1.7), having no breakfast (OR=1.3, 95% CI 1.1-1.7), physician-diagnosed diabetes mellitus (OR=4.2, 95% CI 1.3-14.1) and consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (OR=0.6, 95% CI 0.5-0.8). In rural areas, although the variables accompanying being overweight were parallel with those in urban areas, obesity was only associated with prehypertension (OR=6.1, 95% CI 2.6-14.1), hypertension (OR=22.1, 95% Cl 9.9-49.3) and family history of cardiovascular disease (OR=1.6, 95% CI 1.1-2.6). Risk factors may differ in the adolescents from rural and urban areas. It is important in overweight and obese children to assess the family history of cardiovascular disease, blood pressure and blood glucose, to ask about the habit of regularly breakfasting, and to evaluate time spent on computer/TV. As in urban areas, environmental regulations also become important in rural areas. Appropriate social activities for children to spent more time outdoor, e.g. in parks or playgrounds, are important in urban as well as in rural areas.
    Central European journal of public health 03/2015; 23(1):20-5. · 0.53 Impact Factor