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    ABSTRACT: The goal of this study was to gain a better understanding of the mechanics of the inside-of-the-foot passing shot used in soccer ("pass kick"). The motions of the pass kick were compared with those of the full-instep kick ("full kick"). The study followed an inverse dynamics approach, using three-dimensional cinematographic techniques. At impact, the pelvis and the thigh-shank plane pointed more toward the right in the pass kick; the shank-foot plane also pointed further outward relative to the thigh-shank plane. Knee extension accounted for most of the speed of the foot in both kicks (86% in the full kick; 67% in the pass kick). In the pass kick, pelvis tilt toward the right and hip adduction contributed to a medial component of foot velocity (8.4 m.s-1) normal to the thigh-shank plane, which made the resultant foot velocity vector more oblique to the plane than in the full kick. This facilitated ball impact with the medial aspect of the foot. The slower ball speed in the pass kick was because of a slower foot speed (18.3 m.s-1 vs 21.6 m.s-1). Limitations in the maximum medial velocity that can be generated may force players to restrain the within-plane (and therefore also the resultant) velocity of the foot to be able to impact the ball squarely with the medial aspect of the foot. To impact the ball with the medial aspect of the foot in the pass kick, the player orients the pelvis, the right leg, and the foot more toward the right and introduces a medial component of foot velocity. However, most of the speed of the foot is still generated through knee extension.
    Medicine &amp Science in Sports &amp Exercise 07/1998; 30(6):917-27. DOI:10.1097/00005768-199806000-00022 · 4.46 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to examine the motion-dependent interaction between adjacent lower extremity segments during the actions of kicking and the swing phases of running and walking. This was done to help explain the proximal-to-distal sequential pattern of segment motions typically observed in these activities and to evaluate general biomechanical principles used to explain this motion pattern. High speed film data were collected for four subjects performing each skill. Equations were derived which expressed the interaction between segments in terms of resultant joint moments at the hip and knee and several interactive moments which were functions of gravitational forces or kinematic variables. The angular motion-dependent interaction between the thigh and leg was found to play a significant role in determining the sequential segment motion patterns observed in all three activities. The general nature of this interaction was consistent across all three movements except during phases in which there were large differences in the knee angle. Support was found for the principle of summation of segment speeds, whereas no support was found for the principle of summation of force or for general statements concerning the effect of negative thigh acceleration on positive leg acceleration. The roles played by resultant joint moments in producing the observed segment motion sequences are discussed.
    Medicine &amp Science in Sports &amp Exercise 02/1991; 23(1):130-44. DOI:10.1249/00005768-199101000-00019 · 4.46 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to identify the kinetic aspects of side-foot and instep soccer kicks to understand the different mechanics underlying the two kicks. The motions of both kicks were captured using a three-dimensional cinematographic technique. The kicking leg was modeled as a three-link kinetic chain composed of thigh, shank, and foot, from which joint torques and angular velocities were computed. The ball velocity of the side-foot kick (23.4 +/- 1.7 m x s(-1)) was significantly slower than that of the instep kick (28.0 +/- 2.1 m.s(-1)). Significant differences were also observed between the two kicks for the magnitude of hip external rotation torque (56 +/- 12 N.m in the side-foot kick; 33 +/- 8 N.m in the instep kick) and hip external rotation angular velocity (11.1 +/- 2.4 rad x s(-1) in the side-foot kick; 6.0 +/- 2.0 rad x s(-1) in the instep kick). These results indicated that to hit the ball with the medial side of the foot, a complicated series of rotational motions are required for the side-foot kick. The hip external rotation torque dominantly exhibited in the side-foot kick caused the clockwise rotation of the thigh-shank plane at the later stage of kicking. This may allow the hip external rotation motion to increase directly the forward velocity of the side foot, with which players can squarely impact the ball.
    Medicine &amp Science in Sports &amp Exercise 01/2003; 34(12):2028-36. DOI:10.1249/01.MSS.0000039076.43492.EF · 4.46 Impact Factor

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