Prevalence of Germline TP53 Mutations in a Prospective Series of Unselected Patients with Adrenocortical Carcinoma

Divisions of Molecular Medicine and Genetics (V.M.R., J.N.E., J.M.L.) and Metabolism, Endocrinology, and Diabetes (T.E., G.D.H.), Department of Internal Medicine, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109-5419
The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism (Impact Factor: 6.31). 11/2012; 98(1). DOI: 10.1210/jc.2012-2198
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Purpose:Adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) is a hallmark cancer in families with Li Fraumeni syndrome (LFS) caused by mutations in the TP53 gene. The prevalence of germline TP53 mutations in children diagnosed with ACC ranges from 50-97%. Although existing criteria advocate for TP53 testing in all patients with ACC regardless of age at diagnosis, the overall prevalence of germline mutations in patients diagnosed with ACC has not been well studied.Patients and Methods:A total of 114 patients with confirmed ACC evaluated in the University of Michigan Endocrine Oncology Clinic were prospectively offered genetic counseling and TP53 genetic testing, regardless of age at diagnosis or family history. Ninety-four of the 114 patients met with a genetic counselor (82.5%), with 53 of 94 (56.4%) completing TP53 testing; 9.6% (nine of 94) declined testing. The remainder (32 of 94; 34%) expressed interest in testing but did not pursue it for various reasons.Results:Four of 53 patients in this prospective, unselected series were found to have a TP53 mutation (7.5%). The prevalence of mutations in those diagnosed over age 18 was 5.8% (three of 52). There were insufficient data to estimate the prevalence in those diagnosed under age 18. None of these patients met clinical diagnostic criteria for classic LFS. Three of the families met criteria for Li Fraumeni-like syndrome; one patient met no existing clinical criteria for LFS or Li Fraumeni-like syndrome. Three of the four patients with mutations were diagnosed with ACC after age 45.Conclusions:Genetic counseling and germline testing for TP53 should be offered to all patients with ACC. Restriction on age at diagnosis or strength of the family history would fail to identify mutation carriers.

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    ABSTRACT: Adrenocortical tumors (ACT) in children are very rare and are most frequently diagnosed in the context of the Li-Fraumeni syndrome, a multiple cancer syndrome linked to germline mutations of the tumor suppressor gene TP53 with loss of heterozygosity in the tumors. A peak of children ACT incidence is present in the states of southern Brazil, where they are linked to the high prevalence in the population of a specific TP53 mutation (R337H). Children ACT have specific features distinguishing them from adult tumors in their pathogenetic mechanisms, genomic profiles, and prognosis. Epidemiological and molecular evidence suggests that in most cases they are derived from the fetal adrenal.
    Frontiers in Endocrinology 02/2015; 6:23. DOI:10.3389/fendo.2015.00023
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    ABSTRACT: The adrenal gland consists of two distinct parts, the cortex and the medulla. Molecular mechanisms controlling differentiation and growth of the adrenal gland have been studied in detail using mouse models. Knowledge also came from investigations of genetic disorders altering adrenal development and/or function. During embryonic development, the adrenal cortex acquires a structural and functional zonation in which the adrenal cortex is divided into three different steroidogenic zones. Significant progress has been made in understanding adrenal zonation. Recent lineage tracing experiments have accumulated evidence for a centripetal differentiation of adrenocortical cells from the subcapsular area to the inner part of the adrenal cortex. Understanding of the mechanism of adrenocortical cancer (ACC) development was stimulated by knowledge of adrenal gland development. ACC is a rare cancer with a very poor overall prognosis. Abnormal activation of the Wnt/β-catenin as well as the IGF2 signaling plays an important role in ACC development. Studies examining rare genetic syndromes responsible for familial ACT have played an important role in identifying genetic alterations in these tumors (like TP53 or CTNNB1 mutations as well as IGF2 overexpression). Recently, genomic analyses of ACT have shown gene expression profiles associated with malignancy as well as chromosomal and methylation alterations in ACT and exome sequencing allowed to describe the mutational landscape of these tumors. This progress leads to a new classification of these tumors, opening new perspectives for the diagnosis and prognostication of ACT. This review summarizes current knowledge of adrenocortical development, growth, and tumorigenesis. © 2015 American Physiological Society. Compr Physiol 5: 293-326, 2015.
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    ABSTRACT: Background Adrenocortical cancer (ACC) is a rare disease with a dismal prognosis. The majority of patients are diagnosed with advanced disease and raise difficult management challenges.Methods All references identified in PubMed, published between 2004 and 2014, using the keywords ‘adrenocortical cancer’ or ‘adrenal surgery’ or both, were uploaded into a database. The database was interrogated using keywords specific for each field studied.ResultsIn all, 2049 publications were identified. There is ongoing debate about the feasibility and oncological outcomes of laparoscopic adrenalectomy for small ACCs, and data derived from institutional case series have failed to provide an evidence level above expert opinion. The use of mitotane (1-(2-chlorophenyl)-1-(4-chlorophenyl)-2,2-dichloroethane) in combination with chemotherapy in the treatment of metastatic disease has been assessed in an international randomized trial (FIRM-ACT trial) involving patients with ACC. Based on this trial, mitotane plus etoposide, doxorubicin and cisplatin is now the established first-line cytotoxic therapy owing to a higher response rate and longer median progression-free survival than achieved with streptozocin–mitotane. For patients with tumours smaller than 5 cm and with no signs of lymph node or distant metastases, survival is favourable with a median exceeding 10 years. However, the overall 5-year survival rate for all patients with ACC is only 30 per cent.Conclusion Open and potentially laparoscopic adrenalectomy for selected patients is the main treatment for non-metastatic ACC, but the overall 5-year survival rate remains low.
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