The Role of Exercise in the Treatment of Obesity
ABSTRACT The United States is in the midst of a significant public health problem that relates to obesity and inactivity. This epidemic has far-ranging consequences for our workforce and our children and shows no signs of slowing in the near future. Significant research has been performed on the effects of exercise for the reduction of body weight; results of most studies indicate that exercise alone has a small effect on body-weight reduction independent of caloric restriction. However, when combined with dietary restriction, exercise has a synergistic effect and enhances weight loss beyond the effect of diet alone. In addition, exercise has been shown to have significant beneficial effects on cardiovascular and metabolic risk factors independent of actual weight loss, and losing just a small amount of weight can have a significant beneficial effect on these parameters. Genetic factors related to obesity have been found to be positively modified when persons incorporate physical activity into their lifestyle. Sitting time appears to be an independent risk factor for the development of metabolic risk factors; persons who spend more time sitting and watching television have worse metabolic profiles, even if they achieve the recommended amount of physical activity per week, than do those who move about throughout the day. Exercise also is essential for the prevention of weight gain over a life span, although the amount required to prevent weight gain may be closer to twice the amount of exercise recommended by the current Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans (www.health.gov/paguidelines). In many ways, the physiatrist is the most well prepared of all the specialists to address the complex, multidimensional problems of obesity and inactivity.
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ABSTRACT: Obesity contributes to stress induced impairments in endothelium-dependent vasodilation (EDV), a precursor to atherosclerosis. Since obesity is associated with inflammation and oxidative stress, we sought to determine if a single bout of strenuous weight lifting (SWL) reduces EDV among sedentary obese adults. Participants included 9 obese (OB) (BMI 30.0-40.0 kg/m(2)) and 8 lean (LN) (BMI 18.5-24.9 kg/m(2)) sedentary young women. All participants underwent a single bout of SWL using a progressive leg-press protocol. Brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (FMD) (an index of EDV) was determined using ultrasonography before and after SWL. Sublingual nitroglycerin (NTG) was used to determine brachial artery endothelium-independent vasodilation following SWL. Brachial artery FMD was significantly reduced in OB and LN women (LN: 6.4 ± 1.6%, p = 0.22) after SWL. There was no difference in the magnitude of change pre- and post-SWL between groups (OB: -2.4 ± 0.6% and LN: -2.2 ± 1.6%, p = 0.84). Dilation to NTG was lower in OB (21.6 ± 1.3%) compared to LN women (27.6 ± 2.1%, p = 0.02) and associated with body weight (r = -0.70, p = 0.01). These data suggest that EDV is reduced in woman after acute resistance exercise. Dilations to NTG were lower in obese compared to lean woman and associated with body weight suggesting that changes in sensitivity of blood vessels to NO occurs during obesity. These findings may be important for understanding vascular risk following acute exercise in obesity.Frontiers in Physiology 07/2014; 5:253. DOI:10.3389/fphys.2014.00253
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ABSTRACT: Abstract Background: Weight loss by means of an intragastric balloon is an advantageous procedure, as usage of such a balloon is minimally invasive and of minimal operational risk. Nevertheless, despite the encouraging results referred in to large population studies, its success rate as a treatment option is still questionable. The aim of this study was to classify and analyze all parameters recorded in a database of a treatment protocol concerning obese individuals handled by an intragastric balloon, in an attempt to delineate the comparable profile of those who succeeded to lose weight and those who failed. Subjects and Methods: Retrospective data collection, including demographic and anthropometric data, social and psychological factors, educational status, and attendance at sessions and the exercise program, was conducted. Using as a criterion for grouping the percentage of excess weight loss (%EWL), the successful (%EWL ≥50%) and the poor (%EWL ≤20%) responders were identified. Results: In total, 583 patients were assessed. Initial and ideal body weight (BW), initial body mass index (BMI), and excess weight were significantly lower in the %EWL ≥50% group (P<.001). Upon balloon removal, both groups exhibited a significant difference regarding BW, BW lost, BMI, and %EWL (P<.001). Advanced age (odds ratio [OR]=1.06; P<.001), female gender (OR=3.31; P<.001), basic educational level (OR=3.12; P<.001), and single or divorced marital status (OR=6.00; P<.001) were identified as the most powerful determinants of %EWL ≥50%. Moreover, attendance at more than four monthly interviews and strict exercise program commitment contributed significantly to a favorable outcome. Conclusions: Our findings could serve as an initial step for further research into factors possibly contributing to the early identification of those individuals who will notably benefit from usage of an intragastric balloon regarding BW loss.Journal of Laparoendoscopic & Advanced Surgical Techniques 01/2014; DOI:10.1089/lap.2013.0439 · 1.19 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Physical inactivity is a major risk factor for the development of obesity and other cardiovascular (CV) disease (CVD). Vascular endothelial dysfunction is a key event in the development of CVD and is associated with a sedentary lifestyle in otherwise healthy adults. In addition, vascular endothelial dysfunction may be exacerbated in sedentary individuals who are obese and insulin resistant, since excess body fat is associated with elevated levels of pro-atherogenic inflammatory adipokines and cytokines that reduce the nitric oxide (NO) and other upstream paracrine signaling substances which reduces vascular health. Since blood flow-related shear stress is a major stimulus to NO release from the endothelium, disturbed flow or low shear stress is the likely mechanism by which vascular endothelial function is altered with inactivity. Evidence shows that regular physical exercise has beneficial effects on CVD and the risk factors that promote peripheral arterial function and health. Both aerobic and resistance exercise training are generally believed to improve endothelial function and are commonly recommended for CV health, including the management of obesity, hypertension, and insulin resistance. However, many factors including age, disease status, and race appear to influence these outcomes. Although evidence supporting the health benefits of exercise is compelling, the optimum prescription (volume and intensity) and the exact mechanism underlying the effects of exercise training on arterial function and cardiometabolic risk has yet to be identified. The focus of this review will be on the evidence supporting exercise interventions for peripheral arterial function. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.Progress in Cardiovascular Diseases 12/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.pcad.2014.12.005 · 2.44 Impact Factor