Socioeconomic status (SES) for both individuals and neighborhoods has been positively associated with incidence of breast cancer, although not consistently. The authors conducted an assessment of these factors among African-American women, based on data from the Black Women's Health Study, a prospective cohort study of 59,000 African-American women from all regions of the United States. Individual SES was defined as the participant's self-reported level of education, and neighborhood SES was measured by a score based on census block group data for 6 indicators of income and education. Analyses included 1,343 incident breast cancer cases identified during follow-up from 1995 through 2009. In age-adjusted analyses, SES for both individuals and neighborhoods was associated with an increased incidence of estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer. The associations were attenuated by control for parity and age at first birth, and there was no association after further control for other breast cancer risk factors. These findings suggest that the observed associations of breast cancer with SES may be largely mediated by reproductive factors that are associated with both estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer and SES.
"This association may reflect differences in exposure to breast cancer risk factors. For instance, women of higher SES in general have lower parity, greater use of exogenous hormones, and greater alcohol consumption , all established risk factors for breast cancer (Palmer et al. 2012; Suzuki et al. 2005; Heck and Pamuk 1997). Most of these studies have classified breast cancer as a single disease, although recent genetic and molecular analyses have established the existence of several subtypes of breast cancer, based on ER, PR, and Her status. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Recent developments in genetics and molecular biology have classified breast cancer into subtypes based on tumor markers of estrogen (ER), progesterone (PR) and human epidermal growth Factor-2 receptors (Her-2), with the basal-like (ER-, PR-, Her2-) subtype commonly referred to as "triple negative" breast cancer (TNBC) being the most aggressive. Prior studies have provided evidence that higher socio-economic status (SES) is associated with increased breast cancer risk, likely due to hormone related risk factors such as parity and hormonal contraceptive use. However, it is unclear if the relationship between SES and overall breast cancer incidence exists within each subtype, and if this association varies by race/ethnicity. Analysis was based on data obtained from the SEER database linked to 2008-2012 American Community Survey data, and restricted to women diagnosed with breast cancer in 2010. The NCI SES census tract SES index based on measures of income, poverty, unemployment, occupational class, education and house value, was examined and categorized into quintiles. Age-adjusted incidence rate ratios were calculated comparing the lowest to the highest SES groups by subtype, separately for each race/ethnic group. We identified 47,586 women with breast cancer diagnosed in 2010. The majority was diagnosed with Her2-/HR+ tumors (73 %), while 12 % had triple negative tumors (TNBC). There was a significant trend of higher incidence with increasing SES for Her2-/HR+ (IRR Highest vs. Lowest SES: 1.32, 95 % CI 1.27-1.39; p value trend: 0.01) and Her2+/HR+ tumors (IRR Highest vs. Lowest SES: 1.46, 95 % CI 1.27-1.68; p value trend: 0.01) among White cases. There was no association between SES and incidence of HR- subtypes (Her2+/HR- or TNBC). Similar associations were observed among Black, Hispanic and Asian or Pacific Islander cases. The positive association between SES and breast cancer incidence is primarily driven by hormone receptor positive tumors. To the extent that neighborhood SES is a proxy for individual SES, future studies are still needed to identify etiologic risk factors for other breast cancer subtypes.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This population-based study investigated the relationship between individual and neighborhood socioeconomic status (SES) and mortality rates for major cancers in Taiwan.
A population-based follow-up study was conducted with 20,488 cancer patients diagnosed in 2002. Each patient was traced to death or for 5 years. The individual income-related insurance payment amount was used as a proxy measure of individual SES for patients. Neighborhood SES was defined by income, and neighborhoods were grouped as living in advantaged or disadvantaged areas. The Cox proportional hazards model was used to compare the death-free survival rates between the different SES groups after adjusting for possible confounding and risk factors.
After adjusting for patient characteristics (age, gender, Charlson Comorbidity Index Score, urbanization, and area of residence), tumor extent, treatment modalities (operation and adjuvant therapy), and hospital characteristics (ownership and teaching level), colorectal cancer, and head and neck cancer patients under 65 years old with low individual SES in disadvantaged neighborhoods conferred a 1.5 to 2-fold higher risk of mortality, compared with patients with high individual SES in advantaged neighborhoods. A cross-level interaction effect was found in lung cancer and breast cancer. Lung cancer and breast cancer patients less than 65 years old with low SES in advantaged neighborhoods carried the highest risk of mortality. Prostate cancer patients aged 65 and above with low SES in disadvantaged neighborhoods incurred the highest risk of mortality. There was no association between SES and mortality for cervical cancer and pancreatic cancer.
Our findings indicate that cancer patients with low individual SES have the highest risk of mortality even under a universal health-care system. Public health strategies and welfare policies must continue to focus on this vulnerable group.
PLoS ONE 08/2012; 7(8):e44325. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0044325 · 3.23 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Gallic acid (GA), a polyhydroxylphenolic compound abundantly distributed in plants, fruits, and foods, has been reported to have various biological activities including an anticancer effect. In this study, we extensively investigated the anticancer effect of GA in human breast carcinoma MCF-7 cells. Our study indicated that treatment with GA resulted in inhibition of proliferation and induction of apoptosis in MCF-7 cells. Then, the molecular mechanism of GA's apoptotic action in MCF-7 cells was further investigated. The results revealed that GA induced apoptosis by triggering the extrinsic or Fas/FasL pathway as well as the intrinsic or mitochondrial pathway. Furthermore, the apoptotic signaling induced by GA was amplified by cross-link between the two pathways. Taken together, our findings may be useful for understanding the mechanism of action of GA on breast cancer cells and provide new insights into the possible application of such compound and its derivatives in breast cancer therapy.
Journal of Biochemical and Molecular Toxicology 09/2014; 28(9). DOI:10.1002/jbt.21575 · 1.93 Impact Factor
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