High-Dose Vincristine Sulfate Liposome Injection for Advanced, Relapsed, and Refractory Adult Philadelphia Chromosome-Negative Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

Sarit Assouline, McGill University, Montreal
Journal of Clinical Oncology (Impact Factor: 17.88). 11/2012; 31(6). DOI: 10.1200/JCO.2012.46.2309
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT PURPOSERelapsed adult acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is associated with high reinduction mortality, chemotherapy resistance, and rapid progression leading to death. Vincristine sulfate liposome injection (VSLI), sphingomyelin and cholesterol nanoparticle vincristine (VCR), facilitates VCR dose-intensification and densification plus enhances target tissue delivery. We evaluated high-dose VSLI monotherapy in adults with Philadelphia chromosome (Ph) -negative ALL that was multiply relapsed, relapsed and refractory to reinduction, and/or relapsed after hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). PATIENTS AND METHODS
Sixty-five adults with Ph-negative ALL in second or greater relapse or whose disease had progressed following two or more leukemia therapies were treated in this pivotal phase II, multinational trial. Intravenous VSLI 2.25 mg/m(2), without dose capping, was administered once per week until response, progression, toxicity, or pursuit of HCT. The primary end point was achievement of complete response (CR) or CR with incomplete hematologic recovery (CRi).ResultsThe CR/CRi rate was 20% and overall response rate was 35%. VSLI monotherapy was effective as third-, fourth-, and fifth-line therapy and in patients refractory to other single- and multiagent reinduction therapies. Median CR/CRi duration was 23 weeks (range, 5 to 66 weeks); 12 patients bridged to a post-VSLI HCT, and five patients were long-term survivors. VSLI was generally well tolerated and associated with a low 30-day mortality rate (12%). CONCLUSION
High-dose VSLI monotherapy resulted in meaningful clinical outcomes including durable responses and bridging to HCT in advanced ALL settings. The toxicity profile of VSLI was predictable, manageable, and comparable to standard VCR despite the delivery of large, normally unachievable, individual and cumulative doses of VCR.

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    ABSTRACT: Vincristine (VCR) is a mainstay of treatment of hematologic malignancies and solid tumors due to its well-defined mechanism of action, demonstrated anticancer activity and its ability to be combined with other agents. VCR is an M-phase cell cycle-specific anticancer drug with activity that is concentration and exposure duration dependent. The pharmacokinetic profile of standard VCR is described by a bi-exponential elimination pattern with a very fast initial distribution half-life followed by a longer elimination half-life. VCR also has a large volume of distribution, suggesting diffuse distribution and tissue binding. These properties may limit optimal drug exposure and delivery to target tissues as well as clinical utility as a single agent or as an effective component of multi-agent regimens. Vincristine sulfate liposome injection (VSLI), Marqibo(®), is a sphingomyelin and cholesterol-based nanoparticle formulation of VCR that was designed to overcome the dosing and pharmacokinetic limitations of standard VCR. VSLI was developed to increase the circulation time, optimize delivery to target tissues and facilitate dose intensification without increasing toxicity. In xenograft studies in mice, VSLI had a higher maximum tolerated dose, superior antitumor activity and delivered higher amounts of active drug to target tissues compared to standard VCR. VSLI recently received accelerated FDA approval for use in adults with advanced, relapsed and refractory Philadelphia chromosome-negative ALL and is in development for untreated adult ALL, pediatric ALL and untreated aggressive NHL. Here, we summarize the nonclinical data for VSLI that support its continued clinical development and recent approval for use in adult ALL.
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