The senescence-accelerated SAMP8 mouse is considered a useful non-transgenic model for studying aspects of progressive cognitive decline and Alzheimer's disease (AD). Using SAMR1 mice as controls, here we explored the effects of 6 months of voluntary wheel running in 10-month-old female SAMP8 mice. Exercise in SAMP8 mice improved phenotypic features associated with premature aging (i.e., skin color and body tremor) and enhanced vascularization and BDNF gene expression in the hippocampus compared with controls. With the aim of identifying genes involved in brain aging responsive to long-term exercise, we performed whole genome microarray studies in hippocampus from sedentary SAMP8 (P8sed), SAMR1 (R1sed), and exercised SAMP8 (P8run) mice. The genes differentially expressed in P8sed versus R1sed were considered as putative aging markers (i) and those differentially expressed in P8run versus P8sed were considered as genes modulated by exercise (ii). Genes differentially expressed in both comparisons (i and ii) were considered as putative aging genes responsive to physical exercise. We identified 34 genes which met both criteria. Gene ontology analysis revealed that they are mainly involved in functions related to extracellular matrix maintenance. Selected genes were validated by real-time quantitative PCR assays, i.e., collagen type 1 alpha 1 (col1a1), collagen type 1 alpha 2 (col1a2), fibromodulin (fmod), prostaglandin D(2) synthase (ptgds), and aldehyde dehydrogenase (Aldh1a2). As a whole, our study suggests that exercise training during adulthood may prevent or delay gene expression alterations and processes associated with hippocampal aging in at-risk subjects.
"as such effects have previously been reported in a variety of rodent models in response to exercise (Saltiel and Kahn, 2001; Llorens-Martin et al., 2010; Chang et al., 2011; Kaliman et al., 2011; Sakurai et al., 2011; Higashi et al., 2012; Alvarez-Lopez et al., 2013). We found that miR-28a-5p, miR-98a-5p, miR-148b- 3p were altered in sedentary SAMP8 compared with SAMR1 mice and changed their expression levels in response to exercise (putative aging markers responsive to exercise). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The senescence-accelerated SAMP8 mouse model displays features of cognitive decline and Alzheimer's disease. With the purpose of identifying potential epigenetic markers involved in aging and neurodegeneration, here we analyzed the expression of 84 mature miRNAs, the expression of histone-acetylation regulatory genes and the global histone acetylation in the hippocampus of 8-month-old SAMP8 mice, using SAMR1 mice as control. We also examined the modulation of these parameters by 8 weeks of voluntary exercise. Twenty-one miRNAs were differentially expressed between sedentary SAMP8 and SAMR1 mice and seven miRNAs were responsive to exercise in both strains. SAMP8 mice showed alterations in genes involved in protein acetylation homeostasis such as Sirt1 and Hdac6 and modulation of Hdac3 and Hdac5 gene expression by exercise. Global histone H3 acetylation levels were reduced in SAMP8 compared with SAMR1 mice and reached control levels in response to exercise. In sum, data presented here provide new candidate epigenetic markers for aging and neurodegeneration and suggest that exercise training may prevent or delay some epigenetic alterations associated with accelerated aging.
"Importantly, endurance exercise and training affects the transcriptional machinery in many other organs than skeletal muscle –. The human genome encodes 2578 mature miRNAs  and each tissue has its own specific miRNA expression fingerprint . "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: MiRNAs are potent intracellular posttranscriptional regulators and are also selectively secreted into the circulation in a cell-specific fashion. Global changes in miRNA expression in skeletal muscle in response to endurance exercise training have been reported. Therefore, our aim was to establish the miRNA signature in human plasma in response to acute exercise and chronic endurance training by utilizing a novel methodological approach. RNA was isolated from human plasma collected from young healthy men before and after an acute endurance exercise bout and following 12 weeks of endurance training. Global miRNA (742 miRNAs) measurements were performed as a screening to identify detectable miRNAs in plasma. Using customized qPCR panels we quantified the expression levels of miRNAs detected in the screening procedure (188 miRNAs). We demonstrate a dynamic regulation of circulating miRNA (ci-miRNA) levels following 0 hour (miR-106a, miR-221, miR-30b, miR-151-5p, let-7i, miR-146, miR-652 and miR-151-3p), 1 hour (miR-338-3p, miR-330-3p, miR-223, miR-139-5p and miR-143) and 3 hours (miR-1) after an acute exercise bout (P<0.00032). Where ci-miRNAs were all downregulated immediately after an acute exercise bout (0 hour) the 1 and 3 hour post exercise timepoints were followed by upregulations. In response to chronic training, we identified seven ci-miRNAs with decreased levels in plasma (miR-342-3p, let-7d, miR-766, miR-25, miR-148a, miR-185 and miR-21) and two miRNAs that were present at higher levels after the training period (miR-103 and miR-107) (P<0.00032). In conclusion, acute exercise and chronic endurance training, likely through specific mechanisms unique to each stimulus, robustly modify the miRNA signature of human plasma.
PLoS ONE 02/2014; 9(2):e87308. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0087308 · 3.23 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Aging is associated with an increased risk of depression in humans. To elucidate the underlying mechanisms of depression and its dependence on aging, here we study signs of depression in male SAMP8 mice. For this purpose, we used the forced swimming test (FST). The total floating time in the FST was greater in SAMP8 than in SAMR1 mice at 9 months of age; however, this difference was not observed in 12-month-old mice, when both strains are considered elderly. Of the two strains, only the SAMP8 animals responded to imipramine treatment. We also applied the dexamethasone suppression test (DST) and studied changes in the dopamine and serotonin (5-HT) uptake systems, the 5-HT2a/2c receptor density in the cortex, and levels of TPH2. The DST showed a significant difference between SAMR1 and SAMP8 mice at old age. SAMP8 exhibits an increase in 5-HT transporter density, with slight changes in 5-HT2a/2c receptor density. In conclusion, SAMP8 mice presented depression-like behavior that is dependent on senescence process, because it differs from SAMR1, senescence resistant strain.
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