Equinatoxin II Potentiates Temozolomide- And Etoposide-Induced Glioblastoma Cell Death.
ABSTRACT Glioblastoma (GBM) is considered incurable due to its resistance to current cancer treatments. So far, all clinically available alternatives for treating GBM are limited, evoking the development of novel treatment strategies that can more effectively manage these tumors. Extensive effort is being dedicated to characterize the molecular basis of GBM resistance to chemotherapy and to explore novel therapeutic procedures that may improve overall survival. Cytolysins are toxins that form pores in target cell membranes, modifying ion homeostasis and leading to cell death. These pore-forming toxins might be used, therefore, to enhance the efficiency of conventional chemotherapeutic drugs, facilitating their entrance into the cell. In this study, we show that a non-cytotoxic concentration of equinatoxin II (EqTx-II), a pore-forming toxin from the sea anemone Actinia equina, potentiates the cytotoxicity induced by temozolomide (TMZ), a first-line GBM treatment, and to etoposide (VP-16), a second- or third-line GBM treatment. We also suggest that this effect is selective to GBM cells and occurs via PI3K/Akt pathway inhibition. Finally, Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed that a non-cytotoxic concentration of EqTx-II potentiates the VP-16-induced inhibition of GBM growth in vivo. These combination therapies constitute a new and potentially valuable tool for GBM treatment, leading to the requirement of lower concentrations of chemotherapeutic drugs and possibly reducing, therefore, the adverse effects of chemotherapy.
SourceAvailable from: M. Levent ArtüzBook Nr 280 edited by M. Levent Artüz, 03/2015; Türkiye Barolar Birliği (Union of Turkish Bar Associations)., ISBN: 978-650-9050-34-0
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ABSTRACT: Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most common primary brain tumor and the most aggressive glial tumor. This tumor is highly heterogeneous, angiogenic, and insensitive to radio- and chemotherapy. Here we have investigated the progression of GBM produced by the injection of human GBM cells into the brain parenchyma of immunocompetent mice. Xenotransplanted animals were submitted to magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and histopathological analyses. Our data show that two weeks after injection, the produced tumor presents histopathological characteristics recommended by World Health Organization for the diagnosis of GBM in humans. The tumor was able to produce reactive gliosis in the adjacent parenchyma, angiogenesis, an intense recruitment of macrophage and microglial cells, and presence of necrosis regions. Besides, MRI showed that tumor mass had enhanced contrast, suggesting a blood-brain barrier disruption. This study demonstrated that the xenografted tumor in mouse brain parenchyma develops in a very similar manner to those found in patients affected by GBM and can be used to better understand the biology of GBM as well as testing potential therapies.BMC Cancer 12/2014; 14(1):923. DOI:10.1186/1471-2407-14-923 · 3.32 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Astrocytes, members of the glial family, interact through the exchange of soluble factors or by directly contacting neurons and other brain cells, such as microglia and endothelial cells. Astrocytic projections interact with vessels and act as additional elements of the Blood Brain Barrier (BBB). By mechanisms not fully understood, astrocytes can undergo oncogenic transformation and give rise to gliomas. The tumors take advantage of the BBB to ensure survival and continuous growth. A glioma can develop into a very aggressive tumor, the glioblastoma (GBM), characterized by a highly heterogeneous cell population (including tumor stem cells), extensive proliferation and migration. Nevertheless, gliomas can also give rise to slow growing tumors and in both cases, the afflux of blood, via BBB is crucial. Glioma cells migrate to different regions of the brain guided by the extension of blood vessels, colonizing the healthy adjacent tissue. In the clinical context, GBM can lead to tumor-derived seizures, which represent a challenge to patients and clinicians, since drugs used for its treatment must be able to cross the BBB. Uncontrolled and fast growth also leads to the disruption of the chimeric and fragile vessels in the tumor mass resulting in peritumoral edema. Although hormonal therapy is currently used to control the edema, it is not always efficient. In this review we comment the points cited above, considering the importance of the BBB and the concerns that arise when this barrier is affected.Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience 12/2014; 8(418):1-13. DOI:10.3389/fncel.2014.00418 · 4.18 Impact Factor