Chikungunya Virus and the Mosquito Vector Aedes aegypti in New Caledonia (South Pacific Region)
ABSTRACT Abstract Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is transmitted to humans through the bite of Aedes mosquitoes. During the 2005-2006 epidemic that occurred in the Indian Ocean Islands, a viral strain harboring a substitution of an alanine to valine at position 226 (E1-A226V) of the E1 glycoprotein enhanced the transmissibility of CHIKV by Aedes albopictus. In March 2011, autochthonous transmission of CHIKV was reported in New Caledonia (NC), an island located in the southwest Pacific Ocean. This was the first report of local chikungunya (CHIK) transmission in this region of the world. Phylogenetic analysis based on the complete genome demonstrated that the CHIKV-NC strain isolated from the first autochthonous human case belongs to the Asian lineage. This is consistent with the Indonesian origin of CHIK cases previously imported and detected. Thus the CHIKV-NC does not present a valine substitution at position E1-226. In New Caledonia, the putative vector of CHIKV is Aedes aegypti, since no other potential vector has ever been described. For example, A. albopictus is not found in NC. Vector competence experiments showed that A. aegypti from New Caledonia was able to transmit, as early as 3 days post-infection, two CHIKV strains: CHIKV-NC belonging to the Asian lineage, and CHIKV-RE from Reunion Island harboring the E1-A226V mutation. Thus the extrinsic incubation period of both CHIKV strains in this vector species could be considered to be quite short. These results illustrate the threat of the spread of CHIKV in the South Pacific region. From February to June 2011 (the end of the alert), only 33 cases were detected. Implementation of drastic vector control measures and the occurrence of the cold season probably helped to limit the extent of the outbreak, but other factors may have also been involved and are discussed.
- 05/2013; 4(2):8-10. DOI:10.5365/WPSAR.2013.4.2.003
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ABSTRACT: During the dry season in February, 2010 and the wet season in September, 2011 we sampled mosquito larvae and eggs from treeholes of seven native hardwood species and the husks of Saba senegalensis in 18 sites in the PK-10 forest in southeastern Senegal. Larvae were reared to adults for species identification. In the dry season, we recovered 408 Aedes mosquitoes belonging to seven species. Aedes aegypti s.l. comprised 42.4% of the collection, followed by Ae. unilineatus (39%). In contrast to reports from East Africa, both Ae. aegypti aegypti and Ae. aegypti formosus were recovered, suggesting that both subspecies survive the dry season in natural larval habitats in West Africa. In the wet season, 455 mosquitoes were collected but 310 (68.1%) were the facultatively predaceous mosquito Eretmapodites chrysogaster. The remaining 145 mosquitoes consisted of ten Aedes species. Aedes aegypti s.l. comprised 55.1% of these, followed by Ae. apicoargenteus (15.2%) and Ae. cozi (11.7%). Similar to East Africa, most (90%) of Ae. aegypti s.l. in the wet season were subspecies formosus.12/2013; 38(2). DOI:10.1111/j.1948-7134.2013.12036.x
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ABSTRACT: Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a reemerging arbovirus responsible for outbreaks of infection throughout Asia and Africa, causing an acute illness characterized by fever, rash, and polyarthralgia. Although CHIKV infects a broad range of host cells, little is known about how CHIKV binds and gains access to the target cell interior. In this study, we tested whether glycosaminoglycan (GAG) binding is required for efficient CHIKV replication using CHIKV vaccine strain 181/25 and clinical isolate SL15649. Preincubation of strain 181/25, but not SL15649, with soluble GAGs resulted in dose-dependent inhibition of infection. While parental Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells are permissive for both strains, neither strain efficiently bound to or infected mutant CHO cells devoid of GAG expression. Although GAGs appear to be required for efficient binding of both strains, they exhibit differential requirements for GAGs, as SL15649 readily infected cells that express excess chondroitin sulfate but are devoid of heparan sulfate, whereas 181/25 did not. We generated a panel of 181/25 and SL15649 variants containing reciprocal amino acid substitutions at positions 82 and 318 in the E2 glycoprotein. Reciprocal exchange at residue 82 resulted in a phenotype switch; Gly(82) results in efficient infection of mutant CHO cells but a decrease in heparin binding, whereas Arg(82) results in reduced infectivity of mutant cells and an increase in heparin binding. These results suggest that E2 residue 82 is a primary determinant of GAG utilization, which likely mediates attenuation of vaccine strain 181/25.Journal of Virology 12/2013; 88(5). DOI:10.1128/JVI.03116-13 · 4.65 Impact Factor