Neurodevelopmental Burden at Age 5 Years in Patients With Univentricular Heart
ABSTRACT BACKGROUND:Despite increasing survival, patients with hypoplastic left heart syndrome (HLHS) and other forms of functionally univentricular heart defects (UVHs) remain at increased risk of long-term neurodevelopmental deficits.METHODS:A nationwide sample of 23 patients with HLHS, 13 with UVH, and 40 controls were followed prospectively until the age of 5 years, when neurologic, neuropsychological, and motor examinations and brain MRI were performed.RESULTS:The median full-scale IQ was significantly lower in patients with HLHS (97, P < .001) and patients with UVH (112, P = .024) compared with controls (121). Major neurodevelopmental impairment was found in 26% of the patients with HLHS and 23% of those with UVH, and minor neurologic dysfunction was found in 43% and 46%, respectively. MRI revealed abnormalities, mostly ischemic changes of different degrees, in 82% of the patients with HLHS and in 56% of those with UVH. Prominent changes were significantly associated with neurodevelopmental findings and parental reports of adaptive behavior. In linear regression, significant risk factors for a worse outcome were a history of clinical seizures in connection with the primary operation, a lower diameter of the neonatal ascending aorta, and several pre-, peri-, and postoperative factors related to the primary and bidirectional Glenn operations.CONCLUSIONS:Although median cognitive performance was within the normal range, neurodevelopmental and brain MRI abnormalities were found in the majority of the patients with UVH, and especially in those with HLHS, at preschool age. Both a narrowed ascending aorta and operation-related factors contributed to these findings.
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ABSTRACT: The study objectives were to compare the neurodevelopmental outcomes of preschool survivors of the Fontan procedure with those of children with congenital heart disease undergoing biventricular repair and to investigate predictors of neurodevelopmental outcome for those with single ventricle congenital heart disease, including hypoplastic left heart syndrome. Neurodevelopmental outcomes were assessed at 4 years of age, including cognition, visual-motor integration, behavior, social skills, and academic achievement. Unadjusted outcomes were compared between patients with biventricular circulation and patients with single ventricles. Predictors of neurodevelopmental outcome were assessed in the patients with single ventricles. Multiple covariate models were evaluated using patient-related, operative, and postoperative covariates. Neurodevelopmental evaluation was performed in 365 children, 112 after the Fontan procedure (hypoplastic left heart syndrome, n = 91; other single ventricle, n = 21) and 253 after biventricular repair. Compared with patients with biventricular circulation, patients with single ventricles performed worse in terms of processing speed, inattention, and impulsivity. Otherwise, there were no significant differences between the groups for any domain. There was a trend toward lower performance for patients with single ventricles on visual motor integration. Outcomes for patients with hypoplastic left heart syndrome were not worse than for other forms of functional single ventricle. Patient factors were more important predictors of neurodevelopmental outcomes than were operative management variables. In this cohort, unadjusted neurodevelopmental outcomes for preschool survivors of the Fontan procedure are similar to those for children with congenital heart disease undergoing biventricular repair for most domains. Among the patients undergoing the Fontan procedure, hypoplastic left heart syndrome was not associated with worse outcomes compared with other forms of single ventricle.The Journal of thoracic and cardiovascular surgery 01/2014; 147(4). DOI:10.1016/j.jtcvs.2013.12.019 · 3.99 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: To assess the long-term neuropsychological and behavioural profile of school-aged children who were treated for univentricular heart (UVH) conditions or biventricular heart defect (BiVH) in infancy in a cross-sectional study design. Sixty-three patients, 17 UVH (13 males, 4 females) and 46 BiVH (19 males, 27 females), were assessed at a mean age of 9.1 years (2.2 years) with an intelligence and neuropsychological test battery. Results were compared between subgroups (UVH, BiVH and a healthy control group). Associations between cognitive outcome, medical and socio-demographic factors were explored. Parents completed the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL). Mean intelligence and neuropsychological scores were found within normal ranges for all diagnostic groups. Significant differences between UVH patients and controls emerged on auditory sustained and alternating attention, fine motor skills, visuospatial information processing, and to a lesser extent, memory performance. Parents of UVH patients reported more externalizing problems and school problems. Patient groups did not differ on neuropsychological outcome measures, nor on behavioural problems as rated by parents. After Fontan completion, patients at school age display intelligence scores within normal population-based ranges. However, they were found at risk for subtle shortcomings in attention, fine motor skills, visuospatial information processing and externalizing behaviour problems. Considerations pertaining to neurobehavioural outcome in school-aged children are discussed. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery. All rights reserved.European Journal of Cardio-Thoracic Surgery 02/2015; DOI:10.1093/ejcts/ezv029 · 2.81 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Children with congenital heart disease (CHD) are at risk for developmental delay (DD). Changes in cognitive, language, and motor skills in early childhood have not been described. We report the results of a structured approach using longitudinal testing to identify problems and ensure early intervention in accordance with published guidelines. Bayley Scales of Infant Development, Third Edition, were used to assess cognitive, language, and motor skills in 99 children with CHD. Subjects were evaluated 3 to 6 times in the first 3 years of life. DD was defined as scores >1 SD below the population mean. Cardiac anatomy was single ventricle (1V) in 34 subjects and 2 ventricles (2V) in 65. Medical comorbidities were present in 21% and genetic syndromes in 19%. Most subjects (75%) had DD in ≥1 area at ≥1 assessments. Subjects with 1V anatomy had equivalent outcomes to those with 2V. Cognitive and language scores declined in subjects with genetic syndromes but were stable and within the average range for subjects with 1V and 2V. Motor scores improved for subjects with 1V and 2V but remained low for those with genetic syndromes. In addition to age, need for supplemental tube feeding, longer cardiopulmonary bypass time, and shorter time since last hospitalization were significant predictors of developmental outcomes. DDs in young children with CHD are both common and dynamic. Providers should encourage longitudinal surveillance for children with CHD because exposure to risk and prevalence of DD change over time.PEDIATRICS 02/2014; 133(3). DOI:10.1542/peds.2013-2309 · 5.30 Impact Factor