Commentary on community-led total sanitation and human rights: should the right to community-wide health be won at the cost of individual rights?
ABSTRACT The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) set out to halve the proportion of the population without access to basic sanitation between 1990 and 2015. The slow pace of progress has lead to a search for innovative responses, including social motivation approaches. One example of this type of approach is 'Community-led Total Sanitation' (CLTS). CLTS represents a major shift for sanitation projects and programmes in recognising the value of stopping open-defecation across the whole community, even when the individual toilets built are not necessarily wholly hygienic. However, recent publications on CLTS document a number of examples of practices which fail to meet basic ethical criteria and infringe human rights. There is a general theme in the CLTS literature encouraging the use of 'shame' or 'social stigma' as a tool for promoting behaviours. There are reported cases where monetary benefits to which individuals are otherwise entitled or the means to practice a livelihood are withheld to create pressures to conform. At the very extreme end of the scale, the investigation and punishment of violence has reportedly been denied if the crime occurred while defecating in the open, violating rights to a remedy and related access to justice. While social mobilisation in general, and CLTS in particular, have drastically and positively changed the way we think about sanitation, they neither need nor benefit from an association with any infringements of human rights.
- Journal of Water, Sanitation and Hygiene for Development 06/2014; 4(2):304. · 0.51 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: This article examines what attention to subjectivity and emotion can bring to understandings of participatory resource governance. This focus highlights limitations of common participatory governance approaches, as well as possible ways forward. Attention to these dynamics makes it clear that for participatory governance interventions to be equitable and sustainable they must attend simultaneously to structural and institutional dynamics, as well as an individuals’ experience of participation. Moving forward, we offer some suggestions of new tools and approaches (e.g. emotion work, participatory performance, and spatial tools) that emerge from explicit consideration of emotional and subjective dimensions of participatory resource governance.World Development 12/2014; · 1.73 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The global problem of access to improved sanitation and water management practices has been compounded by the gap existing between knowledge and practice as well as attitude.The aim of this study was to assess households’ knowledge and attitude on water, sanitation, and hygiene practices through a school health programme. Semistructured questionnaires, focus group discussions, key informant interviews, and observation checklist were used to obtain information from 95 households which were systematically sampled. It was found that a school programme may not improve the gap between knowledge, attitude, and practice but may be good for future generations.This was found to be due to sociocultural issues which impede hygiene transformation.The implication is that health programmes must find innovative ways of bridging this gap in order to bring change in households through culture sensitive interventions.Journal of Anthropology. 11/2014; 2014(2014).