Urinary Biomarkers for Phthalates Associated with Asthma in Norwegian Children

Department of Food, Water and Cosmetics, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, Oslo, Norway
Environmental Health Perspectives (Impact Factor: 7.98). 11/2012; 121(2). DOI: 10.1289/ehp.1205256
Source: PubMed


Background: High-molecular-weight phthalates in indoor dust have been associated with asthma in children, but few studies have evaluated phthalate biomarkers in association with respiratory outcomes.
Objectives: We explored the association between urinary concentrations of phthalate metabolites and current asthma.
Methods: In a cross-sectional analysis, 11 metabolites of 8 phthalates [including four metabolites of di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate] were measured in one first morning void collected from 2001 through 2004 from 623 10-year-old Norwegian children. Logistic regression models controlling for urine specific gravity, sex, parental asthma, and income were used to estimate associations between current asthma and phthalate metabolite concentrations by quartiles or as log10-transformed variables.
Results: Current asthma was associated with both mono(carboxyoctyl) phthalate (MCOP) and mono(carboxynonyl) phthalate (MCNP), although the association was limited to those in the highest quartile of these chemicals. The adjusted odds ratio (aOR) for current asthma was 1.9 (95% CI: 1.0, 3.3) for the highest MCOP quartile compared with the lowest quartile, and 1.3 (95% CI: 0.98, 1.7) for an interquartile-range increase. The aOR for current asthma was 2.2 (95% CI: 1.2, 4.0) for the highest MCNP quartile and 1.3 (95% CI: 1.0, 1.7) for an interquartile-range increase. The other phthalate metabolites were not associated with current asthma.
Conclusions: Current asthma was associated with the highest quartiles of MCOP and MCNP, metabolites of two high molecular weight phthalates, diisononyl phthalate and diisodecyl phthalate, respectively. Given the short biological half-life of the phthalates and the cross-sectional design, our findings should be interpreted cautiously.

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    • "Phthalates are widely used as plasticizers in numerous consumer and personal care products, including food packaging, medical devices, cosmetics, and building materials. As such, they have become ubiquitous environmental contaminants (Bertelsen et al., 2013), with several million tons of phthalates produced and used annually worldwide (Feng et al., 2013); large amounts of phthalates are continuously released into the environment during the production, use, and disposal of plastic products. As a result, phthalates are frequently detected in various environmental matrices, including air (Li et al., 2013), soil (Xu et al., 2008) and water (Shi et al., 2012a, 2012b; Xie et al., 2007). "
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    ABSTRACT: Transformation products (TPs) of emerging organic contaminates (EOCs) in water are still rarely considered in environmental risk assessment, although some have been found to be concern. OH is believed as an important reactive species both in indirect phototransformation and advanced oxidation technology. Thus, eco-toxicity and human estrogenic exposure risks of four phthalates and TPs during the OH-initiated photochemical process were investigated using computational approach. Four phthalates can be degraded through OH-addition and H-transfer pathways. The OH-addition TPs were predominant for dimethyl phthalates, while H-transfer TPs were predominant for other three phthalates. Compared with phthalates, OH-addition TPs (o-OH-phthalates) were one level more toxic to aquatic organisms, and m-OH-phthalates exhibit higher estrogenic activity. Although H-transfer TPs were less harmful than OH-addition TPs, some of them still have aquatic toxicity and estrogenic activity. Therefore, more attentions should be paid to photochemical TPs and original EOCs, particularly those exhibiting high estrogenic activity to humans. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
    Environmental Pollution 08/2015; 206:510-517. DOI:10.1016/j.envpol.2015.08.006 · 4.14 Impact Factor
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    • "); these compounds were detected in the indoor air samples at concentrations less than fifty-fold smaller than the guideline values (Table 2). However, these compounds and their metabolites have been frequently detected in human urine samples (Carlstedt et al., 2013; Bertelsen et al., 2013), which suggest the continuous exposure of humans to DBP and DEHP. Moreover, Carlstedt et al. (2013) reported that polyvinyl chloride flooring, which is known to contain phthalates, is related to phthalate uptake in humans. "
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    ABSTRACT: Various plasticizers and flame retardants are contained in building materials and furniture produced for indoor environments. However, some of these material inclusions have been reported to cause endocrine-disrupting and mucosa-irritating effects. Because of the local climate, buildings in Sapporo are better insulated against cold weather than those in many other areas in Japan. In this study, we measured 59 compounds, including plasticizers (phthalates, adipates, and others) and flame retardants (organo-phosphates and brominated compounds), from indoor air samples from six houses in Sapporo. These compounds were measured separately in the gas phase and the particle phase using a two-stage cartridge equipped with a quartz fiber filter (1μmmesh) and C18 solid-phase extraction disk for sampling and analyzed by GC/MS and LC/MS/MS (for the detection of brominated flame retardants). Among the 59 compounds measured in this study, 34 compounds were detected from the indoor air of the six houses. The highest concentration among the 34 compounds found in a newly built house was 2,2,4-trimethyl-1,3-pentanediol monoisobutyrate (TXIB) at 20.8μg/m(3). Di(2-ethyl-1-hexyl)terephthalate (DEHT), which has been used in recent years as an alternative to di(2-ethyl-1-hexyl)phthalate (DEHP), was found in all six houses, although at low concentrations ranging from 0.005 to 0.027μg/m(3). To our knowledge, this is the first report of DEHT in indoor air in Japan. Among the compounds detected in this study, those with lower molecular weights tended to be captured in the C18 solid-phase extraction disk rather than in the quartz fiber filter. These results suggest that compounds with higher volatility exist preferentially in the gas phase, whereas compounds with lower volatility exist preferentially in the particulate phase in indoor air.
    Science of The Total Environment 04/2014; 491-492. DOI:10.1016/j.scitotenv.2014.04.011 · 4.10 Impact Factor
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    • "Toxicological studies suggest that DiBP and DiNP may disrupt androgen signaling and act cumulatively with other phthalates to affect male reproductive end points (National Research Council 2008). Although epidemiologic evidence of these replacement phthalates is limited, a recent cross-sectional study of 623 Norwegian children (Bertelsen et al. 2013) reported associations between current asthma and urinary metabolites of DiNP and DiDP, but not with any of the other phthalate metabolites. Given the likely increase in human exposure to replacement phthalates, further study on their adverse health effects in epidemiologic studies is warranted. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Phthalates are ubiquitous environmental contaminants. Because of potential adverse effects on human health, butylbenzyl phthalate (BBzP; metabolite = monobenzyl phthalate (MBzP)), di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP; metabolite = mono-n-butyl phthalate (MnBP)), and di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) are being replaced by substitutes including other phthalates, however little is known about consequent trends in population-level exposures. Objective: To examine temporal trends in urinary concentrations of phthalate metabolites in the US general population, and whether trends vary by socio-demographic characteristics. Methods: We combined data on 11 phthalate metabolites for 11071 participants from five cycles of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2001-2010). Percent changes and least square geometric means (LSGMs) were calculated from multivariate regression models. Results: LSGM concentrations of monoethyl phthalate, MnBP, MBzP, and ∑DEHP metabolites decreased between 2001-2002 and 2009-2010 (percent change (95% CI): -42% (-49, -34); -17% (-23, -9); -32% (-39, -23) and -37% (-46, -26), respectively). In contrast, LSGM concentrations of monoisobutyl phthalate, mono(3-carboxypropyl) phthalate (MCPP), monocarboxyoctyl phthalate, and monocarboxynonyl phthalate (MCNP) increased over the study period (percent change (95% CI): 206% (178, 236); 25% (8, 45); 149% (102, 207); and 15% (1, 30), respectively). Trends varied by subpopulations for certain phthalates. For example, LSGM concentrations of ∑DEHP metabolites, MCPP, and MCNP were higher in children than adults but the gap between groups narrowed over time (pinteraction < 0.01). Conclusions: US population exposure to phthalates has changed in the last decade. Data gaps make it difficult to explain trends but legislative activity and advocacy campaigns by non-governmental organizations may play a role.
    Environmental Health Perspectives 01/2014; DOI:10.1289/ehp.1306681 · 7.98 Impact Factor
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