Free-Standing Mechanical and Photonic Nanostructures in Single-Crystal Diamond

Nano Letters (Impact Factor: 13.03). 11/2012; 12(12). DOI: 10.1021/nl302541e
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT A variety of nanoscale photonic, mechanical, electronic, and optoelectronic devices require scalable thin film fabrication. Typically, the device layer is defined by thin film deposition on a substrate of a different material, and optical or electrical isolation is provided by the material properties of the substrate or by removal of the substrate. For a number of materials this planar approach is not feasible, and new fabrication techniques are required to realize complex nanoscale devices. Here, we report a three-dimensional fabrication technique based on anisotropic plasma etching at an oblique angle to the sample surface. As a proof of concept, this angled-etching methodology is used to fabricate free-standing nanoscale components in bulk single-crystal diamond, including nanobeam mechanical resonators, optical waveguides, and photonic crystal and microdisk cavities. Potential applications of the fabricated prototypes range from classical and quantum photonic devices to nanomechanical-based sensors and actuators.


Available from: Nathalie de Leon, Jan 21, 2014
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The burgeoning field of nanophotonics has grown to be a major research area, primarily because of the ability to control and manipulate single quantum systems (emitters) and single photons on demand. For many years, studying nanophotonic phenomena was limited to traditional semiconductors (including silicon and GaAs) and experiments were carried out predominantly at cryogenic temperatures. In the last decade, however, diamond has emerged as a new contender to study photonic phenomena at the nanoscale. Offering a plethora of quantum emitters that are optically active at room temperature and ambient conditions, diamond has been exploited to demonstrate super-resolution microscopy and realize entanglement, Purcell enhancement, and other quantum and classical nanophotonic effects. Elucidating the importance of diamond as a material, this progress report highlights the recent achievements in the field of diamond nanophotonics, and conveys a roadmap for future experiments and technological advancements.
    07/2014; 2(10). DOI:10.1002/adom.201400189
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Single-crystal diamond, with its unique optical, mechanical and thermal properties, has emerged as a promising material with applications in classical and quantum optics. However, the lack of heteroepitaxial growth and scalable fabrication techniques remains the major limiting factors preventing more wide-spread development and application of diamond photonics. In this work, we overcome this difficulty by adapting angled-etching techniques, previously developed for realization of diamond nanomechanical resonators, to fabricate racetrack resonators and photonic crystal cavities in bulk single-crystal diamond. Our devices feature large optical quality factors, in excess of 105, and operate over a wide wavelength range, spanning visible and telecom. These newly developed high-Q diamond optical nanocavities open the door for a wealth of applications, ranging from nonlinear optics and chemical sensing, to quantum information processing and cavity optomechanics.
    Nature Communications 12/2014; 5:5718. DOI:10.1038/ncomms6718 · 10.74 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We report C(1s) and O(1s) surface sensitive x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and C and O K-edge partial-electron yield near-edge x-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) measurements for (100) and (110) oxidized diamond surfaces, etched by a laser two-photon ultraviolet (UV) desorption process. Etched regions of the (100) surface show increased oxygen coverage with a higher fraction of singly bonded termination species than unetched regions. Similar changes are observed for the (110) but with smaller magnitude. For both surfaces, no major change in sp(2) bonded carbon is observed. We show that the terminations observed for etched surfaces are consistent with the formation of oxidized {111} facets. For deeply etched samples, atomic force microscopy and scanning electron microscopy confirm the presence of {111}-like facets and reveals the development of nanoscale facetted ridges directed perpendicular to the etching beam polarization. An etching mechanism is proposed involving localized optical absorption by surface electronic states, with the probability for subsequent desorption events varying according to the relative directions of laser polarization and lattice orientation.
    Physical Review B 05/2014; 89(19). DOI:10.1103/PhysRevB.89.195422 · 3.66 Impact Factor