Juego sociodramático y esquemas de género. Una investigación en educación infantil Socio-dramatic role-play and gender schemes. An investigation into early childhood education

Cultura y Educación (Impact Factor: 0.27). 05/2005; 17(2):115-129. DOI: 10.1174/1135640054192847

ABSTRACT El trabajo que aquí se presenta ha tenido como objetivo analizar, a través de métodos etnográficos, los comportamientos de niños y niñas de cinco años en el denominado juego sociodramático para comprobar si se percibían diferencias en relación al género. El planteamiento teórico del que hemos partido ha sido el enfoque socio-cultural (Vygotski, Elkonin, Bruner) que entiende este juego como un importante valor socializante y trasmisor de cultura. Se observaron 30 sesiones de juego en una clase de E. Infantil (5 años) de clase trabajadora, en distintos escenarios pertenecientes a ámbitos de dominancia femenina, masculina y neutra. El resultado mostró diferencias destacables en el comportamiento lúdico en función del género, y estas diferencias se orientan en la dirección de los estereotipos en el sentido de que los varones dirigían sus guiones hacia la acción y la agresividad, mientras las niñas orientaban la historia hacia las relaciones personales, el mundo doméstico y el cuidado. Estos comportamientos diferenciales se mantienen en los distintos escenarios de juego. Además se observaron conductas evasivas (salir del escenario, trasformar objetos…) que permiten modificar el escenario y cambiar el guión, y el número de estas aumentaba cuando el escenario de juego pertenecía al ámbito de dominancia del sexo opuesto.A partir de los resultados obtenidos, concluimos que las diferencias de género se manifiestan de forma muy temprana en el juego sociodramático y que a través de él, niños y niñas ensayan comportamientos futuros, por lo que incluimos una propuesta coeducativa relacionada con este tipo de juego que pretende favorecer la constitución de identidades de género abiertas.The study analyses the behaviour of five-year-old children in the so-called socio-dramatic role-play using an ethnographic framework. The main purpose is to examine if differences perceived relate to the child's gender. The study has been inspired by a socio-cultural approach (Vygotski, Elkonin, Bruner) that considers play to be an important socializing factor as well as a way of transmitting culture. A series of 30 role-play sessions were observed in a classroom of five-year-olds (working-class). The sessions, involving different scenarios, may be classified as female-dominated, male-dominated or neutral. The result showed that significant differences in children's play behaviour relate to their gender, and these differences point towards stereotypes. That is, boys direct their scripts towards action and aggression, whilst girls focus on personal relationships, the household setting, and care and attention for other people. These differential behaviours are maintained throughout the diverse role-play scenarios. An evasive behaviour in which the child would modify the scenario and therefore change the script was also appreciated. The evasive behaviour was more frequent in those scenarios dominated by the opposite sex. Taking into account these results, we conclude that gender differences appear in role-play in the early childhood years, and through this activity, girls and boys practice their future behaviours. In this way, we propose to work on a co-educational alternative in relation to this type of play that tries to favour the construction of open gender identities.

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