Patterns of invertebrate diversity in streams and freshwater springs in Northern Spain
ABSTRACT Invertebrate diversity patterns were examined in six rheocrene springs and six nearby, runoff-fed streams in Cantabria, Northern Spain. Periphyton biomass, organic matter and biomass of moss were always higher in springs than streams. Species densities (number of species/area) and rarified species richness (number of species/number of individuals) were lower and invertebrate densities greater in spring habitats. Of 22 variables chlorophyll- was the best predictor of species richness, whereas total organic matter was the best predictor of invertebrate density, although neither relationship was strong. Spring habitats had invertebrate communities dominated by non-insect taxa (e.g., Echinogammarus, and Hydrobiidae and Neritidae snails), in contrast to the insect dominated communities in runoff-fed streams (e.g., Baetis, Ecdyonurus, Elmis, Prosimulium, Scirtes and Chironomidae). Echinogammarus had the highest densities in springs; an order of magnitude greater than any other taxa. The effects of biotic processes, such as predation from Echinogammarus on community structure may be more marked in springs because predated individuals cannot be as readily replaced by drifting animals from upstream reaches. The reduced diversity in springs compared to streams could be a result of several factors including increased predation from animals such as Echinogammarus or the unusually constant thermal characteristics.
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ABSTRACT: Reduced thermal amplitude has been highlighted as a limiting factor for aquatic invertebrate diversity in springs. Moving downstream water temperature range increases and invertebrate richness is expected to change accordingly. In the present study temperature patterns were investigated in seven spring-fed streams, between April 2001 and November 2002, and compared to five run-off-fed streams to assess the degree of crenic temperature constancy. Temperature and physico-chemical characteristics of the water, and food resource levels were measured, and the invertebrate fauna collected at 4 distances (0, 100, 500 m and 1 km) from seven springs in the North and South Islands of New Zealand. Temperature variability was greater for run-off-fed streams than for springs, and increased in the spring-fed streams with distance from the source. Periphyton and physico-chemical characteristics of the water did not change markedly over the 1 km studied, with the exception of water velocity and organic matter biomass, which increased and decreased, respectively. The rate of increase in temperature amplitude differed greatly for the studied springs, probably being affected by flow, altitude, and the number and type of tributaries (i.e., spring-or run-off-fed) joining the spring-fed stream channel. Longitudinal changes in the number and evenness of invertebrate taxa were positively correlated to thermal amplitude (r s = 0.8). Moving downstream, invertebrate communities progressively incorporated taxa with higher mobility and taxa more common in nearby run-off-fed streams. Chironomids and non-insect taxa were denser at the sources. Chironomid larvae also numerically dominated communities 100 and 500 m downstream from the sources, together with Pycnocentria spp. and Zelolessica spp., while taxa such as Hydora sp. and Hydraenidae beetles, the mayflies Deleatidium spp. and Coloburiscus humeralis, and the Trichoptera Pycnocentrodes spp., all had greater abundances 1 km from the sources. In conclusion, water temperature range was highly correlated with number of taxa, although other factors, such as substratum composition, stability and invertebrate drift, may also play an important role in the determination of longitudinal changes in invertebrate community composition and structure along spring-fed streams.J. Limnol. 01/2011; 703274:134-146.
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ABSTRACT: Springs are ecomorphologically and faunistically diverse freshwater ecosystems. Their limnological classification has been a focus of interest since crenic research began. Despite many attempts to include the crenic fauna in the classification of springs, there is no faunistic crenon typology. Over a three-year period we investigated the macroinvertebrate assemblages and the physical, chemical and ecomorphological conditions of 82 springs in the Swiss Jura Mountains, north-western Switzerland. Based on these data we selected the 25 least-disturbed springs to develop a faunistic crenon classification. Based on functional feeding groups we differentiated three crenon groups. An analysis of similarities and nonmetric multidimensional scaling for the substratum types supported the crenon groupings. In general we can distinguish between springs that are dominated by scrapers and characterized by a lotic environment, and those that are mostly inhabited by filtering collectors, associated with a lentic environment. Those two crenon types are the extremes of a continuum. Particular crenon forms, such as those with extensive carbonate deposits, lie between these extremes. This third group is characterized by gathering collectors and shredders. Using this approach we can distinguish faunistic crenon types, based on functional feeding groups, which reflect the abiotic conditions within the springs. We provide a foundation for a faunistic crenon typology which now can be tested in other landscapes and will then be applicable to other low mountain ranges in Europe.J. Limnol. 01/2011; 703274:147-154.
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ABSTRACT: We examined the life history and secondary production of four Ephemeroptera species (Baetis alpinus Pictet, 1843–1845, Baetis rhodani Pictet, 1843–1845, Rhithrogena carpatoalpina Klonowska, Olechowska, Sartoriet & Weichselbaumer, 1987 and Habroleptoides confusa Sartori & Jacob, 1986) in a temperature stable cold spring stream at Prosiek valley (Chočské vrchy Mts., West Carpathians, Slovakia). We have found asynchronous bivoltine life cycle for the most abundant species B. alpinus with growth rate positively correlated to photoperiod length. R. carpatoalpina have shown unusual asynchronous univoltine life cycle and B. rhodani have shown uncommonly low abundance in mayfly community. Total secondary production of mayfly community was very low, reaching 1654.8 mg DW.m−2.y−1. We suggest that the observed asynchrony in growth could be related to the lack of temperature control.Limnologica - Ecology and Management of Inland Waters 04/2013; 43:469–474. · 1.57 Impact Factor