Factores asociados a las conductas sexuales de riesgo en la adolescencia Associated factors to risk sexual behaviours in adolescence
ABSTRACT En el presente trabajo nos proponemos conocer la relación que guardan algunos de los factores propuestos en el modelo de la Información-Motivación-Habilidades conductuales de Fisher y Fisher (1992), con la implicación en conductas sexuales de riesgo en los adolescentes. La muestra utilizada para el estudio ha estado compuesta por 234 adolescentes escolarizados, comprendidos entre los 16 y los 19 años (126 varones - 53.8 % - y 108 mujeres - 46.2 % -), todos los cuáles han tenido relaciones sexuales coitales, al menos, en una ocasión. A todos ellos se les pasó un cuestionario anónimo que comprendía diferentes escalas para evaluar las variables objeto del estudio, así como diferentes aspectos de su comportamiento sexual. Los resultados obtenidos suponen, en términos generales, un apoyo empírico al modelo de Fisher y Fisher (1992), si bien, aparecen diferencias importantes entre los chicos y chicas en cuanto a las variables asociadas a los comportamientos de riesgo y a la magnitud de tal asociación. The present study attempts to determine the relationship between some of the factors proposed in Fisher and Fisher's (1992) Information-Motivation-Behavioural Skills model and engaging in risky sex practices in adolescence. The sample included 234 adolescents attending school, age ranging between 16 and 19 years (126 boys - 53.8% - and 108 girls - 46.2% -), all had engaged in full coitus on at least one occasion. The subjects were asked to complete an anonymous questionnaire that included different scales in order to assess the variables under study together with different aspects of their sexual behaviour. Although, overall the present results empirically support Fisher and Fisher's (1992) Information-Motivation-Behavioural Skills model, important differences were found between girls and boys both with respect to the variables associated to sexual risk and to the magnitude of this association.
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ABSTRACT: To examine how well the theories of reasoned action and planned behavior predict condom use, the authors synthesized 96 data sets (N = 22,594) containing associations between the models' key variables. Consistent with the theory of reasoned action's predictions, (a) condom use was related to intentions (weighted mean r. = .45), (b) intentions were based on attitudes (r. = .58) and subjective norms (r. = .39), and (c) attitudes were associated with behavioral beliefs (r. = .56) and norms were associated with normative beliefs (r. = .46). Consistent with the theory of planned behavior's predictions, perceived behavioral control was related to condom use intentions (r. = .45) and condom use (r. = .25), but in contrast to the theory, it did not contribute significantly to condom use. The strength of these associations, however, was influenced by the consideration of past behavior. Implications of these results for HIV prevention efforts are discussed.Psychological Bulletin 02/2001; 127(1):142-61. DOI:10.1037//0033-2909.127.1.142 · 14.39 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Unprotected sexual intercourse places a substantial number of adolescents at risk for sexually transmitted disease (STD) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. While the most effective means of preventing STD/HIV infection among sexually active adolescents is consistent condom use, little is known about the factors that influence their consistent use among adolescents. This study of adolescents (n = 1049, mean age = 16.2 years) found that of the 266 teens who recently became sexually active, only 29% reported using condoms consistently. Consistent condom use was more frequent in males, those with little history of risk behavior and those with stronger intentions to use condoms in the future. Fear and anxiety of HIV, attitudes about risks other than HIV, and other safe behavior intentions were not significantly related to consistent condom use. Although intentions and recent behavior were significantly related, a different group of factors was found to predict intention to use condoms (e.g., perception of condom use by friends, general impulsive attitudes). Identifying and understanding the factors that influence adolescent sexual behavior and intentions is important for developing maximally effective HIV education/prevention programs.Journal of Adolescent Health 01/1993; 13(8):651-7. · 2.75 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: A comprehensive model of the determinants of condom use among young women was developed, tested, and replicated, with longitudinal follow-up to assess predictive utility of the model for condom use over time. Participants in Study 1 and Study 2 were 198 female undergraduates (mean age, 18.6 years) and 238 female undergraduates (mean age, 19.1 years), respectively. Acceptance of sexuality and control over the sexual encounter were related to a multidimensional measure of condom use self-efficacy, which predicted condom use intentions. Perceived susceptibility to STDs was both directly related to intentions and indirectly related through perceived benefits and attitudes about condom use. Intentions predicted subsequent reports of condom use. The model suggests foci for condom use interventions for young women.Health Psychology 10/1997; 16(5):468-79. DOI:10.1037/0278-618.104.22.1688 · 3.95 Impact Factor