Vitamin A fortification of wheat flour: Considerations and current recommendations
ABSTRACT Background : Vitamin A deficiency is a major public health nutrition problem, affecting an estimated 190 million preschool-aged children and 19 million pregnant and lactating women globally, and 83 million adolescents in Southeast Asia alone. Its consequences (disorders) include xerophthalmia (the leading cause of early childhood blindness), increased severity of infection, anemia, and death. Because vitamin A deficiency is largely due to chronic dietary insufficiency of preformed vitamin A and proactive carotenoids, food fortification can offer an effective approach to prevention. Objective: To provide guidance on fortifying wheat and maize flour milled in industrial rollers for national fortification programs in countries where vitamin A deficiency is considered a public health problem. Methods: Critical review of the literature on the dietary gap in vitamin A intake and levels of wheat flour intake among risk groups as a basis for determining vitamin A fortificant levels. Additional review of efficacy evidence, safety and cost considerations, and country experiences related to wheat-flour fortification with vitamin A. Results: Mill-rolled wheat flour is a technically fortifiable, centrally processed food vehicle that, where routinely and adequately consumed by target groups, should be considered a candidate for fortification. Vitamin A can be stable in flour under typical, ambient conditions, with processing losses estimated at approximately 30%, depending on source and premix conditions. Conclusions: Factors to guide a decision to fortify flour with vitamin A include the extent of deficiency, availability of other food vehicle options, the centrality of milling, market reach and population intake distributions of the flour products, the dietary vitamin A intake required, and associated costs. Large gaps persist in knowledge of these factors, which are needed to enable evidence-based fortification in most countries, leaving most decisions to fortify guided by assumptions. Where flour can and should be fortified, guidelines are given for providing nearly 25% of the Recommended Dietary Allowance for vitamin A to vulnerable groups consuming varying ranges of flour products. The costs will vary according to the level of fortification.
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ABSTRACT: Adverse sensory changes prevent the addition of highly bioavailable ferrous sulfate (FeSO4) to most wheat flours. Poorly absorbable reduced Fe powders are commonly used. Encapsulation of FeSO4 can overcome these sensory changes, but the particle size of commercial compounds is too large to be used by flour mills. The first objective of the study was to measure the efficacy in wheat flour of two newly developed Fe compounds, an H-reduced Fe powder (NutraFine RS; North America Höganäs High Alloys LLC, Johnstown, PA, USA) and small particle-sized (40 microm) encapsulated FeSO4. As a second objective, the microcapsules were evaluated as a vehicle for iodine fortification. A randomised, double-blind controlled intervention trial was conducted in Kuwaiti women (n 279; aged 18-35 years) with low body Fe stores (serum ferritin (SF) < 25 microg/l) randomly assigned to one of three groups (20 mg Fe as NutraFine RS, 10 mg Fe as encapsulated FeSO4 and 150 microg iodine, or no fortification Fe) who consumed wheat-based biscuits 5 d per week. At baseline and 22 weeks, Hb, SF, transferrin receptor, urinary iodine and body Fe stores were measured. Relative to control, mean SF in the encapsulated FeSO4 group increased by 88 % (P < 0.001) and body Fe stores increased from - 0.96 to 2.24 mg/kg body weight (P < 0.001), while NutraFine RS did not significantly increase SF or body Fe stores. The median urinary iodine concentration increased from 140 to 213 microg/l (P < 0.01). NutraFine RS added at double the amount of Fe as FeSO4 was not efficacious in improving Fe status. The newly developed microcapsules were highly efficacious in improving both Fe stores and iodine status.The British journal of nutrition 08/2009; 102(9):1362-9. · 3.45 Impact Factor
- Nutrition Reviews 08/2002; 60(7 Pt 2):S50-61. · 4.60 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The objective in the Hungarian randomised double-blind controlled trial was to study the preventive effect of periconceptional multivitamin supplementation on neural tube-defects and other congenital abnormalities. There were 2,471 and 2,391 informative offspring (prenatally diagnosed and terminated malformed fetuses, stillborn fetuses, and liveborn infants) in the multivitamin and placebo-like trace element groups, respectively. A single tablet either of a multivitamin containing 0.8 mg of folic acid or trace element supplement was given daily for at least one month before conception and at least until the date of the second missed menstrual period. The total rate of major congenital abnormalities was 20.6/1,000 in the multivitamin and 40.6/1,000 in the trace element group. After the exclusion of six cases of neural-tube defects in the trace element group the difference was very highly significant [P = 0.0003; relative risk of 0.54 (95% CI 0.39, 0.76)]. Multivitamin supplementation appeared to result in a significant reduction in the rate of urinary tract abnormalities, mainly obstructive defects, and in the rate of sporadic cardiovascular malformations, mainly ventricular septal defects. This report is regarded as a hypothesis-generating study encouraging others to see if the result can be repeated.American Journal of Medical Genetics 04/1996; 62(2):179-83.