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Noninvasive glucose detection in human skin using wavelength modulated differential laser photothermal radiometry

Center for Advanced Diffusion-Wave Technologies (CADIFT), Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, University of Toronto, ON M5S 3G8, Canada.
Biomedical Optics Express (Impact Factor: 3.5). 11/2012; 3(11):3012-21. DOI: 10.1364/BOE.3.003012
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Noninvasive glucose monitoring will greatly improve diabetes management. We applied Wavelength-Modulated Differential Laser Photothermal Radiometry (WM-DPTR) to noninvasive glucose measurements in human skin in vitro in the mid-infrared range. Glucose measurements in human blood serum diffused into a human skin sample (1 mm thickness from abdomen) in the physiological range (21-400 mg/dl) demonstrated high sensitivity and accuracy to meet wide clinical detection requirements. It was found that the glucose sensitivity could be tuned by adjusting the intensity ratio and phase difference of the two laser beams in the WM-DPTR system. The measurement results demonstrated the feasibility of the development of WM-DPTR into a clinically viable noninvasive glucose biosensor.

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Available from: Andreas Mandelis, Aug 28, 2015
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    • "Recently a noninvasive and noncontacting technique, the wavelength modulated differential laser photothermal radiometry (WM-DPTR), has been developed for continuous or intermittent glucose monitoring in the MIR range. This can be applied to measure serum-glucose levels in human skin in vitro [58, 59]. These recent advances in application of nanobiosensor technologies in monitoring of glucose concentrations are primarily targeted toward the measurement of blood glucose level in diabetic patients [60]. "
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    • "The mid-infrared (mid-IR) is promising for the field of noninvasive in vivo glucose detection, as the glucose molecule contains fundamental vibrational resonances between 8 - 10 μm [8] which are not overlapped by other biological absorbers except water. Water is a broad featureless absorber throughout the near and mid-IR, but its absorption coefficient is roughly four orders of magnitude greater at 10 μm than at 1 μm, which has been the biggest challenge for researchers focusing on noninvasive in vivo glucose detection in the mid-IR regime [9]. However, recent developments in mid-IR light source technology, including pulsed Quantum Cascade (QC) lasers able to provide high peak powers on the order of hundreds of milliwatts while maintaining average powers on the order of a few milliwatts [10] have provided the capacity to obtain more robust signals from skin regions where mid-IR light had previously been considered to be undetectable. "
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    • "In order to keep the blood glucose in a normal level thus reduce the complications of diabetes, self-monitoring of glucose (SMG) is necessary for diabetic patients. However, the frequent acupunctures for glucose testing bring discomfort and suffering, and may cause infections to them [1–4]. Therefore, a non-invasive continuous blood glucose measurement methodology would be highly desirable. "
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